research paper writing guide

Can I write it in research paper? Help Guide

At first, you should understand what it means to write a research paper because without this knowledge you cannot create decent work.

A research paper is academic writing, which analyzes a perspective or argues a point. No matter what kind of research paper you are writing your finished work should present your own thinking backed up by others’ ideas and information.

Can you use quotes in a research paper?

In order to make a research paper stronger, it is okay to add quotations when you need to cite a principal piece of primary source material, strengthen your argument with the help of another writer’s work, or highlight a term of art. It is very important to both use quotations effectively and cites them properly. In this case, you will write a successful paper and avoid plagiarizing.

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There are several types of quotations. You can use many ways to present them as well as provide different kinds of quotes in your work.

For example, there are dropped quotes. These are particulate phrases taken from the middle of a piece of text. They should be introduced in a sentence, which will give an idea of the meaning because they cannot form their own sentence. Take a look at the examples:

Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings”( 263).

Romantic poetry is characterized by the “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (Wordsworth 263).

These examples were taken from a book, so the numbers of the pages where they can be found are mentioned. Note that the first one has only the number of the page in brackets because the name of the author is used in a quote, while the other one has the name and the page in brackets for the reason it does not include the author in the quote.

So, you can see that if you cite an article, the most important is to use the author’s name. If it does not have the author’s name, you go to the title, if the title is not available use the name of the source you found it in.

The second type of quotations is called indirect. Basically, it means you will be paraphrasing. For instance:

Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotions in the creative process (263).

You can see that here we do not use quotation marks, and it looks more like your own interpretation of what the author said. You still should mention the page, and give credit to the person. If you want to write a paraphrase, try not to look at the quotation, but keep in mind the idea and create your own sentence.

If you do not want to take breaks or change phrases, you may also use full or direct quotes:

“This fascinating guided tour provides an informative and detailed look at the park’s logistical, technical and operational sides. Included are the parade- assembly area, the waste-treatment plant, and the utilidor network beneath the park” (Sehlinger and Testa 703).

One more type of quotations is block quotes. This writing type may explain the typical question: “Can a research paper start with a quote?” This is a combination of sentences quoted straight from the source. They are usually pretty long and take plenty of space, that is why you do not want to have more than two of them in your paper. The example will look like this:

Scholar Michael Corinaldi makes a similar point about the history of Israel and the Ethiopians:

The Israeli government, however, made no attempt to include the Ethiopians in the waves of immigrants that arrived in Israel, and in some cases, Ethiopian Jews were forced to go hiding lest they are deported by the local authorities. This was based on their considerations of how Jewish the Ethiopians were and how easily they could adapt to their new environment (180).

Can you start a research paper with a story

This is a very common question students have, as we all think that a story will take much space and as a result, we will have fewer things to write. Let’s find it out together.

When you start writing a research paper you have to remember that the best variants to start will be the next ones:

1. Writing definitions

Exactly here we clarify all unknown words and things the audience might face while reading your text. So, if your paper is dedicated to some specialized topic which has a lot of unfamiliar words for the common reader, write definitions to make the reading process easier and more interesting. You may start an introduction with defining a central word or phrase which is used most of all in the text. But please, don’t use the definition if it will not give any needed information to the reader.

2.Adding an Anecdote or Quotation

If you use this method, it will make the reading process easier. What happens to you when you appear in a new company and see that people say jokes and simply have fun? You feel relaxed. The same is here – start with an anecdote. Can you start a research paper with a personal story? Yes, you definitely can. You may use a piece of the story from a legend or myth or even your own example.

3.Creating a Contrast

The good thing is to start with a point you disagree with. For example, you may start with a sentence describing that breastfeeding up to three years old is not good for mental health of the child; they make a transition with a word like “however” or “but,” and explain your point of view with researchers you made before.

Can i use questions in a research paper

A research paper is the type of writing which demands deep analysis as well as thoroughly investigated phenomena of the subject matter. Overall this type of paper is highly codified writing in a rhetorical form. Rules are of the utmost importance; therefore, it is easier to plan the draft of the research paper in a questionnaire form rather than in a statement manner. There is the necessity to address a specific research question. It is not a typical question which is easy to answer since the whole research paper is aimed at responding to it throughout the paper. Any information which is related to the research question is important for the paper; the other one is not. Understandably, the research question is central whereas there may exist secondary but related questions. It would be easier to compose the draft of the work with them. It is worth noting that interrogative sentences are not advised to use in the research paper, they are better for the researcher’s understanding of how to organize the whole paper. Alternatively, the research question possesses some key features which define that it is not a typical question of posterior importance. If you want to be logical and consequent in your research paper, pay attention to the research question specificity, novelty, originality, relevance. The paper has to be suitable for a broad scientific community.

Can you use subheadings in a research paper

Yes, of course, you can use subheadings in your research work. When constructing any research work, the use of subheading is very important, especially when you aspire to get the “A” mark. Subheadings are needed to indicate the key points of a well-reasoned presentation: it helps to look at what you expect to do and make sure whether your plan is good. This approach helps to organize your thoughts and follow your specific research goal.

Effective use of subheadings is not just the designation of the main points that you want to cover. Their sequence may also indicate the presence or absence of logic in the coverage of the topic.

Also, based on the subheadings, you structure your argument; it is here that you have to substantiate (logically, using data or rigorous reasoning) the argument/analysis you are proposing.

Filling the content of sections with your argument (corresponding subheadings), limit within the paragraph consideration of one main idea.

How to do subheadings in a research paper

In order to make subheadings for your research work, you need to follow the instructions:

  • Subheadings in a research paper should avoid as far as possible narrowly specialized terms, abbreviations, abbreviations, mathematical formulas.
  • The headings of subsections and paragraphs should begin with a paragraph indentation. The title is written in capital letters, the subtitle – in lowercase, with the first uppercase. In the end, there is no point or emphasis.
  • The length of the sub-title line should be no more than 40-45 characters. Word wraps in the subtitle are also unacceptable.
  • The location of the title and subtitle is central or flagship (left).
  • Subheadings are usually put through every 2-5 paragraphs, but this, above all, depends on the content. If the section is too large (over seven paragraphs), think about how to split it into two or several parts.
  • If your article contains subheadings only of the first level, it’s better than if it did not have them at all. However, the longer the article, the more paragraphs, tips, “steps” in each part, the more likely it is that you need to add one more level of detail: subheadings of the second level.
  • Do not use more than three levels of subtitles.
    • Level 1: Paris “h1”
    • Level 2 :Architecture “h2”
    • Level 3: Attractions and tourism “h3”
    • Level 2: Temples, churches and mosques “h2”
    • Level 3: Parks and gardens “h3”

Can You Use the Subheadings in a Research Paper?

Yes, you can use subheadings in your academic writing assignment, but they should be used wisely and correctly. While working on the organization of a research paper, remember that you can use the major sections and different subheadings to set up a good plan for this particular college assignment.

It is a well-known fact that students were not allowed to use headings in formal writing a few years ago. Many American students were assigned with writing a significant number of academic papers related to the area of Business Studies. The interesting thing that should be mentioned is that they were not allowed to use the major headings and subheadings in their formal writings.

However, taking into consideration the current American system of education, it can be concluded that such strong restrictions do not exist anymore. At present, all the college undergraduates have a great opportunity to structure their writing assignments without the obligation to follow the guidelines. Actually, students are required to take into account some basic rules relative to the structure a research paper as well as to its organization.

Can you use blogs in research papers?

Definitely, you can! To make your research paper more attractive, you can use blogs in research papers. A blog is an online magazine, an online diary, the main content of which is systematically added entries. Records contain text, photographs, graphic elements or multimedia. Blog entries are usually not long and are grouped in reverse chronological order. Most blogs are public, have readers who engage in controversy with the author of the blog through comments to the entry or on their blog.

Comments to the blog have made it a mean of communication in the network, which surpasses e-mail, forums, and chats by some criteria. Personal sites, consisting of owner records and comments, are also referred to blogs.

Not only the structure of records but also the ease of adding them is a feature of blogs. It is enough for the blog owner (blogger) to be identified on the web server in order to add a new record. The server places the latest messages at the top.

The blog provides an opportunity to say something and make everyone hear it. People will read the entry at a time convenient for them, or ignore it if it’s not interesting for them.

How can you use blogs in research papers?

The modern world is developing very fast, that’s why the library’s sources are not the only one thing used in the research paper. Students often go to different websites and are not sure, whether they can use information from the blogs. Of course, you can (and should) cite anything, including a conversation, email exchange or blog. Citing a blog in an academic paper could be considered similar to citing an op/ed in a newspaper. The real question is how the professor (or another grader) will consider the authority of the source.

When doing research, especially on the Web, be wary of unreliable sources since anyone can publish on the Internet. The professor who grades your paper could accept a blog source IF it was reliable and relevant. Citing a respected author/writer with expertise in a field would be fine since he/she is a “known quantity.” Citing an anonymous blogger would not.

If a “fact” stated in your paper comes from a blog, it is probably wise to verify from a more concrete source. Currently, blogs, like Wikipedia, are not respected in scholarship. They should only be cited to demonstrate a level of knowledge that is conversed about at the popular level. But basing real research on them is not a good idea.

To sum up, you can certainly use the blog as a cited source, but you should not count it as fulfilling the requirement of 3-5 academic sources.

Can you use pronouns in research papers

When talking about pronouns in the research paper, it is significant to identify which class of them we mean.

Academic writers often ask whether the personal pronouns can be used in any type of academic piece of writing. However, we want to say that the answer to the question “Can you use personal pronouns in research papers” is not definite. It means that you may say both “Yes” and “No.” Everything depends on the situation in most cases. And before you started to panic, we recommend going with us to the next tips. They will clarify everything. It is how you will learn when you may use the personal pronoun in the research paper so that it doesn’t sound subjective.

Pronouns “I” and “We”

It is no wonder that people don’t know whether it is right to use personal pronouns because until the 1920s writing it is possible to find those words in academic texts. After that time the academic community started to use both passive-voice constructions and the third person more often to make the writing sound more scientifically. However, during the recent years, the use of active voice and in some cases the first person narration stated to be become more incorporated in writing.

Can research papers have personal pronouns

There are still several strict rules which limit the usage of the pronouns “I” and “We.” For instance, the first person pronouns can be used in the beginning: abstract, introductory part, discussions, and concluding sections of a research paper. The third person narration is more likely to appear in the main body with decided theoretical and practical parts, methodology description and the calculated results.

Rules when it is correct to use pronouns

  1. The writers clarify the meaning of the sentence by avoiding the use of passive voice.
  2. The writer establishes the credibility of the source.
  3. The author shows the interest in the issue which is under investigation.
  4. The writer wants to create a personal connection with the target audience.
  5. The author uses anecdotes to refer to the everyday life situations as an argument to prove the idea, show the personal involvement, encourage the reader to think about real-life cases and picture up certain personal perspectives relates to the subject of discussion in the academic paper.
  6. The writer was to put an emphasis on the exact perspective during the analysis of literature.
  7. The author creates a friendly tone for the conversation, although it is used not often in the academic papers.

Rules when it is incorrect to use pronouns

  1. The writer puts overwhelming and continuous emphasis on the subjective opinion instead of making the text object.
  2. The author has a desire to use objective ideas to minimize the possible bias in what you discuss and analyze.
  3. Using the personal pronouns will be perceived as your opinion while it should be clear that the idea is borrowed and should be cited instead.

Tips for using pronouns in the research paper

Try using less personal pronouns because it shows the reader that the paper is not analyzed properly but is based only on one’s thoughts. Pay attention to the way you begin the paper because if you state “I think” this deprives your sentences the unbiased message. If you want to preserve a serious tone, try to avoid using “I,” “We,” “You.”

Be attentive when you use the pronoun “We.” It shouldn’t refer to us as the writer and the readers because that text should preserve the objective tone. Sometimes readers may get confused because of such addressing them. Therefore, this pronoun should refer only to the certain group of authors, scientists that you were working together or share similar ideas. The readers shouldn’t be involved in the research paper because they didn’t take part in formulating the hypothesis and conducting the research at all. You never know their opinion and what they might think about the topic of discussion.

Although the purpose of the writing is to convince the reader of the thesis statement that you’ve used, the ideas presented should be the core of your argumentative persuasion. If you use the pronoun “We” you may clarify who is meant. For instance, “As academic researchers, we consider the following question to be irrelevant.” In this case, you show clearly who is meant in this pronoun.

The second person “You” is not acceptable in the academic writing because you can’t refer to the reader that directly.

Think about the tone and voice of your research paper. If you deviate from the standards, this may mean your lack of knowledge or ability to the writer as a researcher.

Can you include your opinion in a research paper?

As we know, the research paper is usually not a creative work; it is simply the systematization of knowledge that you must find in books. So that students go to the library and search for materials there.

And that’s why very often students have got such question: can research papers have opinions? Or better to ask: can research papers have personal opinions?

And the answer is yes. But let’s try to look deeper into this question. A research paper should contain an opinion, as it is more subjective types of work, not objective. But it is important this opinion be supported with some documents and other reliable sources. It is also very important to write the text of the work in simple language for the correct and clear formulation of its main topics and questions. In addition, a very important role is played by the style of presentation, the skill of drawing up short sentences and expressing one’s opinion in an accessible and understandable form that does not allow for different interpretations. It is necessary to observe the generally accepted uniformity in the use of terms, abbreviations of words, measures of length and weight, conventional notation.

So, can you use opinions in a research paper?

In order to do this correctly, you need to collect as many journals and articles as possible, which will help you find unique information. It would be nice to apply to the Internet, for the benefit of students there is now just paradise, a huge amount of information on any topic. However, do not get involved in the World Wide Web: do not forget that on the Internet information is not checked by anyone and there can be a lot of mistakes. And of course, teachers do not like too much when abstracts are downloaded from the Internet.

Such kind of work as research paper is theoretical, that is why the author has to persuade a reader that it is worse to consider this or that opinion. You shouldn’t convince, but use arguments and present attempt to persuade the reader. Your research paper should show that it is logical and valid and is important and reliable.

A researcher carries out his work using different methods that do not depend on the sphere of his studies. And as a conclusion, he has to give his arguments. If you ask once again can a research paper be opinionated? The answer will be yes.

Here are some pieces of advice to make it easier to tell your opinion.

Try not to choose a topic, writing which it will be difficult to use new ideas and opinions. This can ruin even a good job, because the conclusions that you expected to have, regardless of the associated research results, will have to be adjusted to the desired result, instead of indicating the real one. Instead, you should ask continuous questions about the topic at each stage of your research, and it is better to use hypothetical terms, not conclusions. That way, you will show that these statements can be challenged, and you are even ready to change your opinion of the process of work.

Answering the question, can research paper have your opinion in it? It is also worth mentioning that reading notes, opinions and other people’s thoughts on this topic can help you improve your own opinion, or they have raised questions in the basis of the argument, but left them unanswered. Do your own scientific research.

Do not start writing your work before you haven’t made any researches. It would be much easier for you if you understand what this topic is exactly about and what you need to do in this area. You need to have a couple of methods that you will use to work on your research paper and solve all problems you may face with. As well, it would be great if you like the chosen topic. What is more, use only reliable sources, check if they are original and up-to-date. As we live in a technological era, you can use the internet to communicate on the topic of your research paper with other people who may have a similar or different opinion. Find online discussions, blogs, forums, etc.

Can a research paper include opinion, is a very important question? To express your opinion better try to specify the main idea. After you have done the research, go back to the chosen topic. At this point, it is very important to emphasize the only major thesis that you disclose, the opinion that you will defend in your work, as well as the content and conclusion that the reader understands. Your thesis is the basis of your essay, the idea that you will defend in all chapters. If it is superficial, then all the work will seem tasteless. Build a thesis so that it confirms that your report is interesting to you. If you are sure that your ideas are expressed clearly and clearly, start writing the first drafts.

Can a research paper be in first person?

If you’re working on your scientific assignment, you are probably wondering can you write a research paper in first person. Actually, no. However, it’s nothing terrible. It is one of the most common mistakes when research papers have the first-person language.

For you to develop a good qualitative research paper, let us take a look at the main principles of scientific writing. Of course, the question can a research paper be written in the first person is the most common among young scientists, but still, there is a range of other questions to be answered.

Principles essential to scientific writing can be summarized in four key points: clarity, precision, communicability, and consistency. Despite this, there are some other requirements to take into account, listed below.

  1. No qualitative research papers use first person language.
    It is good to remember that the author should not use the first person singular in academic texts. The text must always be impersonal, in the third person (search, intend, notice itself), or in the first person plural (we look for, pretend, we note). The first person singular is allowed in quotes or testimonials. Also, first-person texts are generally used for reporting and other types of communication, such as blogging.
  2. Don’t use informal language.
    Correct and revise your text several times, check grammar, verbal and nominal agreement, plus all the rules that make the text pleasant and easy to understand.
    If you prefer, hire a professional who specializes in proofreading and will make all the necessary corrections and notes for quality work.
  3. Avoid confusing sequence.
    Before you begin, organize the ideas and order them in the way in which they will be presented. You can also establish a logical plan for the text. The more clear ideas you have in mind, the more clear your text will be.
  4. Make long phrases short.
    Long phrases make it difficult to read and understand and make your text very tiring. Prefer to put a period and start a new sentence rather than using commas. A comma-filled phrase is asking for points. Also, if the information does not deserve a new sentence is not important and can be eliminated.
  5. No to ambitious words and repetition of words.
    In a scientific text, each word must translate exactly the thought that one wishes to convey. Therefore there should be no room for interpretation. Avoid using too far-fetched language or unnecessary terms.
    When to speak about a repetition of words, the two main errors should be pointed out: when the same word is used several times in a sentence or paragraph and the use of tautology. Tautology is the repetition of an idea, in an addictive way, with different words, but with the same meaning. For example, “two halves equal” or“grouped together.”
  6. No personalization of inanimate beings.
    This is also a frequent mistake. Graphs, tables, and results are not human beings, so they do not show, do not indicate or present anything.
  7. Avoid phrases in reverse order.
    Prefer phrases in direct order. When constructing the sentences, use the following structure: subject + verb + complements and/or attachments. There is no mistake.
  8. Reduce the number of useless words.
    Cut out all useless words or use only little of those in the content and add more precise, specific words. Among them, prefer the simpler, more usual and shorter ones.
  9. Trademarks.
    If your work has been sponsored by any company, show all your gratitude in a “thanks” item upon completion. Use the common or scientific name of the product throughout the text.

Can you use first person in research papers?

Academic and scientific works should evaluate and describe the facts and phenomena by their importance to humanity, not to the people who publish them. The author should always choose the third person singular. This is the usual way to expose the work to the scientific community. So, instead of using the verb in the first person singular “I researched,” one should write “it was researched.” The tense of verbs may vary according to the nature of the work. In the case of a monograph and a master’s thesis, one can use the present tense when there is the reference to the original work of the author. In the case of projects that are planned to be carried out, the verbs should be used the future tense (“to search”).

Can I write a research paper in first person singular?

There is a doubt: should the researcher produce the text in the first person singular (“I believe …”) or in the first person plural (“we think …”)?

Scientific communication must have a formal and impersonal character. Because of this, one should avoid constructing assignments in the first person singular. The most appropriate way to avoid that is to write text with the “we” or to use impersonal text. Like, for example, the following expressions: “it is concluded that” “is perceived by reading the text,” “it is valid to suppose,” “one would have to say,” “to verify,” and so on.

It is not necessary, therefore, to say: “as we saw in the previous item.” It is said, “as seen in the previous item,” or instead of, “we said,” “it was said that” etc. Although the use of “we” or other impersonal expression is the most suitable, it can happen in certain parts of the work that you have to use the “I” in order to clarify the main thought. In other cases, the communication will be lost.

So, can a research paper use first person in any case?

We hope you no longer think of can you use first person in a research paper. The style used in writing is every writer’s personal choice. It may be more analytical or more descriptive, more practical, or more theoretical. The text should be written for a general audience, should be clear and explicit the exposition and the argument, without useless facts or meaningless pieces of evidence.

When preparing your research paper, the first thing you need to decide is to pick which tense to use. There are authors who prefer to use the plural, others – the first person singular.

TEXT DESIGN

Сan research papers have bullet points and number points

If you’re wondering how to prepare a qualitative research paper, you should take into account that writing a scientific article provides taking into account specific requirements. This form of writing is often very strict and which does not suit many authors. But since the form of a classical research paper is rigid and codified, it means you can learn it. Even if you want to send articles to professional magazines, you can prepare a good qualitative work.

The first thing you need to do is to read lots of various scientific articles about scientific writing. It may sound terrible, even for a philosopher who loves the meta level. But without the help of experienced colleagues and scientists, you will not know how to present your thoughts and results in a more clear and transparent way.

Of course, writing scientific articles is a craft, that’s why it requires practice and learning. Good editorial offices (and not those from the blacklist of bullets journals) consider articles that are not only meritorious but also meet the formal requirements (and these are not always standard for each magazine, sometimes they are customary).

There are generally three broad categories of journal submissions: very good articles, good articles, and others. Very good articles are routinely subjected to a peer review, and they are being recommended for revision. Other submissions are of less exceptional quality, and they can be sorted out in the process of editorial screening. Some authors do not make a substantive contribution to the theory or are not sufficiently developed.

Here is a universal checklist, which is worth reviewing: both before writing the article and before sending the text to the editorial board:

  1. Is it really justified to present a new idea?
  2. Can the article be a part of the journal?
  3. Is the subject of the study clearly indicated?
  4. Does the article refer to important subject literature?
  5. Does the literature review indicate important points for further consideration?
  6. Is the concept presented in the text really new?
  7. Is the theoretical background articulated clearly in the article?
  8. Are all the important terms and concepts explained?
  9. Is the argument presented in a clear way?
  10. Was the proposal confronted with other important data?
  11. Have all inaccuracies been eliminated?
  12. Is an accessible language used in the article?
  13. Can you use bullets in a research paper?
  14. If empirical data appear in the article, is it clearly connected with a theoretical part and compare it in numbers structuring?
  15. Is the article about to discuss the implications of the new approach?

And what about reading? What should you read to write better?

There are many review articles on the publishing market that are interesting and where you can find an explanation of what the first mail should look like, is there a cover letter, how to do a revision, etc. Of course, it is best to train under the guidance of experienced colleagues. And if you do not have such a possibility, it is always worth reading something.

Can research papers have bullet points?

When writing a scientific paper, you can wonder can a research paper have bullet points. Yes, there’s nothing wrong with it. It should be noted here that you should stick to one type of bullets in a research paper throughout the work, thus avoiding unnecessary variety. Also, you should take into account that among the characters serving the punctuation there is a certain hierarchy in which the square or dot stands higher than the dash (pause), above which figures are the letter and the number above the letter.

Can you use numbers in a research paper?

Sure! Using numbers in a research paper is another means of structuring the work. One more common question about preparing the research paper is can I write numbers in a research paper. Yes, you can use numbers as your bullet points. If the paper is relatively long, you can assign a number to each part of the paper and a sub-number for smaller parts. You can also use numbers as the bullet points for your listings.

One of the most common reasons for not accepting a scientific article for publication is an incorrect text structure. Of course, a good structure does not guarantee anything: not only good research is needed, but also a clear text is written in the correct language, as well as many other issues. But just the lack of a proper structure shows that you do not know what the research paper is all about.

Many magazines in their guidelines for authors give information on the maximum volume of the text, guidelines for the preparation of charts, attachments, bullets, numbers, etc. However, as many magazines do not indicate what structure of the text the authors have to use. It is assumed that this is obvious and understandable by itself. And such approach often causes problems, especially among young scientists from countries where practically no time is spent on (doctoral) studies for the development of academic papers and workshop competences, enabling them to achieve their scientific goals.

The structure is just a common standard, but the editorial staff often assume implicitly that it is known by everybody. The most classic structure of the scientific text is the structure called IMRAD: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion.

However, Literature review and Conclusion do not have to appear in every text. Literature review often appears in the introduction and takes 1-2 paragraphs of a detailed description of the state of research. As well as a Conclusion section – it is often not a mandatory part of the scientific paper.

In addition to the sections related to the “content” of the text, there are also parts of the text which are essential for the visibility, recognisability, and searchability of our text. They are such “typical” parts as title, abstract, bullet points, numbers, keywords or acknowledgments.

So can we use bullets in research paper?

Yes – it is the simplest answer we could ever give. Moreover, it is advisable to use bullet points for a number of reasons.

  • Bullet points structure the work.
  • They help the writer focus on the specific idea.
  • Bullet points make the paper look thought-out.
  • They help manipulate the reader’s attention by putting an emphasis on the section with bullet points.

oth bullets and numbers are indispensable parts of any research paper because it makes the work more structured.

These basic principles are universal for all disciplines. Naturally, each journal may require some additional sections (e.g., separate information about financing or a conflict of interest). However, the basic requirements for the structure of the research paper analyzed in this article do not change.

Can a research paper have pictures, graphs, charts?

Can you use images in a research paper? The answer is yes. Adequate visual representation of the obtained data is able to demonstrate more clearly (in comparison, only with the text or table) the differences, the trend of change, the nature of the interrelations and the very existence of the studied indicators. The informational essence of such images can reflect either quantitative characteristics obtained by means of measurements or qualitative features, in the form of demonstrating the visual characteristics of the indicator under study (for example, using photography or “artistic image”). As for the information purpose, it is due to the author’s intentions to draw the reader’s attention to certain features of the results obtained. This intention may consist of the desire to demonstrate either the very fact of the appearance of the changes, or their magnitude, or the tendency, or the type of dependence, etc. We hope that we answered your question if can you use pictures in a research paper. 

Can research papers have pictures?

Can a research paper have picturesNow when you know the answer to the questions “Can a research paper include pictures?” or “Can a research paper have pictures?” you can start creating “research paper’s drawings.” It is desirable that each separate graphic image, regardless of its variety, is placed on one separate page with the possibility of copying and pasting into the desired place of text. It is most advisable to do this after printing the entire article, copying the desired drawing (from its file) to a new page after the one where it is referenced for the first time. But you can insert a picture and immediately after a specific sentence, which shows the data presented on it, and the corresponding link. Can you include pictures in a research paper?

Yes, but this will require subsequent special editing of the text on the page, before and after the inserted picture. Therefore, despite the fact that the link to the picture is presented on the same page, prepared in a separate file in advance, it is preferable to place it outside the text, immediately on the next separate page. And after referring to it on the previous page, simply, continue the test description of the other results. With this arrangement, there can be a link to several pictures on one page, and they will be presented one after the other, on subsequent separate pages. The advantages of such a separate layout of the “drawing,” as well as for the table, are associated with a significant simplification of the text editing of the article and providing greater visibility of the data presented in it.

Can research papers have graphs?

We will answer the question “Can a research paper include graphs?” Yes, it can. To demonstrate the quantitative differences that indicate a comparative change in the same indicator studied in your research paper, a bar graph is usually used – the Gantt chart. Moreover, it should be emphasized that a clearly visible difference between the columns of the mean values ​​(without the image ± 5) may not serve as a convincing argument in favor of the fact that one of them is larger or smaller than the other. This is explained by the fact that such a difference between the “average arithmetic” was due to the presence among the averaged values ​​of the ejection (or unexpectedly large or small value).

It is usually a consequence of the influence of the probabilistic factor uncontrolled by the experimenter and indicates a lack of methodological purity of the experiment. Therefore, one must present on the histogram their average quadratic deviations for visual proof of the reliability of the quantitative differences of the average values ​​of the indicator (if it is not done in the text or in the table). To do this, it is necessary to focus on ending the segments corresponding to the value “± 8”, passing through the upper points of the columns being compared. Demonstrated differences of the indicator are objectively existing (statistically reliable) only when the lower end of the segment (-8) of a larger value is above the upper end of the segment (+8) of a smaller value (i.e., these halves of segments with q values ​​do not overlap).

This “non-overlapping” graphically demonstrates the existence of a statistically significant difference between the comparative mean statistical values ​​and is the basis for their scientific interpretation. If no changes have been recorded, or the apparent differences (based on overlapping the mean square deviation values ​​± 5) are statistically unreliable, or insignificant, although reliable, then the histogram is not practical. Quite enough, just mention this fact in the text, and in case of urgent need, refer to the appropriate table.

Can you use graphs in research papers? When constructing a histogram, it is necessary to sign the names of the axes (vertical and horizontal), and in relation to the vertical axis, also create a scale with divisions of a certain dimension. The accuracy of these divisions (the frequency of marking on the vertical axis) should allow to visually determining the value of the displayed property of the compared values ​​of the indicator. At the same time, the accuracy of the divisions must be such that it is visually possible to easily determine the smallest difference between the columns shown – the averaged values.

There is no such special scale for a pie chart, so it is sufficient to print the names of each sector corresponding to the property displayed to it and its dimension (usually, in percent,%).

Both for the histogram and for the diagram, it is necessary to provide a clear visual distinction between the compared columns or sectors, not only due to different heights or areas but also by their “coloring.” In this case, it is undesirable to use different colors, because, in a journal article, this is not allowed by editorial rules (all drawings should only be black and white).

Use instead of color, different hatching, and, for neighboring columns and sectors; it is clearly distinguishable (for example, right lateral, and left – oblique or pointed). The “contrast” of perception provided in this way should be more expressive, the less compared the differences in values ​​that are near (on the right and on the left) from its column. The selected black-and-white “texture-hatching” filling the inner space of a column or sector should not make it difficult (mask) to read the inscriptions and figures located in them

Can a research paper include charts?

To demonstrate the trend of change (and not the magnitude of the differences) over time or under the influence of different intensities of the same factor, or for graphical representation of the mathematical relationship between the indicators, it is more expedient to use the chart in research papers and also for creating your schedule.

Can research papers have charts? Thanks to the graphic image, the tendency-direction, intensity and nature of the revealed changes or interrelations are more clearly monitored. For this, it is necessary to always sign both axes of the coordinates of the graph (both ordinates and abscissas) with the names of the corresponding indicators or only time units for the abscissa axis. In addition, both these axes must have a scale (a division with the corresponding digitization), the accuracy of which allows us to determine the numerical values ​​of any point on the graph.

First of all, this refers to the experimentally obtained points-values ​​on the basis of which the graph is constructed. Due to this, visual detection of the existence or absence of interrelation between the studied indicators is simplified, which can serve as a basis for further refinement of it by special statistical methods. In this case, it should be stressed once again that it is impossible to determine which of these two interrelated indicators, and which function, cannot be done by any statistical methods.

To determine the cause-effect relationship between the indicators studied, and in such a way to confirm the fact of the change of one of them, only under the influence of the other, it is necessary to conduct purposeful experiments to identify which of them is a function and which is the argument. It is not advisable to construct a graph if there are fewer than four experimentally obtained or averaged values ​​(points) for each of the indicators considered.

This is explained by the fact that it is difficult to determine from three or fewer points a reliably existing trend of change (especially nonlinear). It is more expedient to present such data with either a text or a histogram (with compared columns-values), which will fairly well reflect the changes obtained (without claiming a tendency). And the author does not need to discuss their orientation, but rather confine oneself, only by a comparative analysis of the available quantitative differences (more, less).

Its result can be presented, for example, with a text comment that at such and such a value of one indicator the value of the other was such-and-such, and for another such-and-such. Also, the article should not use a graph if in the experiment the changes of the same index are fixed under the individual influence of different experimental factors (conditions). For this, it is better to use a bar graph, where the names of these different factors will be listed horizontally, and the property of the indicator under study, whose values ​​correspond to the effect of different experimental factors, will be shown vertically.

 

USING WORDS IN WRITING

Can i use “I” in a research paper

During writing a research paper, we are faced with many questions we need to find answers to. This article is devoted to giving you the best answers for questions: can i say “I” in a research paper, can you use I in a research paper mla, can you say We in a research paper and can you use I or We in a research paper.

Let’s start from can you use “I” in a research paper.

  1. The answer for the question can a research paper use i is the next: the use of the first person varies considerably between disciplines – most common in the humanities, least common in the physical sciences, with social sciences coming, as you’d expect, in the middle. However, the only field, where no use of the first person in (admittedly small) sample wasn’t found was accountancy. Draw your own conclusions.
  2. Use of the first person was most common in the introductions of papers; e.g., “I shall argue that …” Interestingly, conclusions, where students love to write things like “in my opinion ….” or “I strongly believe …” were relatively free of the first-person usage.
  3. Where phrases like “I think” and “in my opinion” are used, it is often used to make the opinion weaker, not stronger. “I think” means, “I think, but I’m not sure”; “in my opinion” means “this is only my opinion – it’s not the only conclusion you can draw.” (This contrasts with some kinds of business and technical writing, where your opinion is central).

To sum up, the answer for the question can i write i in a research paper is the next: use “I” carefully, bearing in mind your audience, the field in which you are writing and what you are doing in that particular part of the essay, and use “in my opinion” rarely, if at all.

Сan i say “We”

There are many discussions about whether we can you use i in research papers, as well as can you use “we” in a research paper. There is no clear answer to this question, as you can do both. It’s not prohibited in the rules of academic writing not to use first-person pronouns.

However, the use of “I” and “we” still has some generally accepted rules we ought to follow. For example, the first person is more likely used in the abstract, introduction, discussion, and conclusion sections of an academic paper while the third person and passive constructions are found in the methods and results sections.

It’s not easy to write a good research paper.  We need to break the mountain of textbooks, periodical literature, read the works of eminent scientists. As a result, the original text should be obtained, with the same success based on both existing developments and new student ideas.

Check what your teacher thinks about that issue. Do not neglect the help of your instructor, he/she can suggest interesting directions, help to find the right literature. Consultations will allow you to write a qualitative, interesting, and unique research paper.

Can you use the word “It” in a research paper?

One of the most frequent question students ask is whether the word “it” can be used in a research paper. Before answering the question, it should be mentioned that whether the word “it” can be used depends on a type of assignments and formats. Generally, it is acceptable to use “it” writing a research paper, especially as far as APA style of formatting is concerned. However, one should remember that in some cases using “it” may make sentences needlessly wordy. Revising the paper, consider whether the phrase starting with the word “it” may be paraphrased or not. Also, the use of the word “it” depends on the role a subject plays in a sentence. In most cases, the use of “it” takes the emphasis off of the subject and may make the gist of the message unclear and complicated to understand. Lastly, the use of the word “it” instead of naming the subject may lead to the occurrence of passive voice that is very often unacceptable according to the original instructions, for ex. ” It is said that…” In fact, many studies on academic writing recommend reducing the passive voice as much as possible for the sake of clarity.

Nevertheless, there are also some cases when using the word “it” is not only acceptable but also recommended. One of such specific reasons is avoiding the overuse of the subject. Also, it may help to avoid the repetition and vary the structure of sentences.  Hence, even though it is grammatically acceptable to begin a sentence with the word “it,” one should ask oneself whether it is truly needed and whether the writing sounds concise and accurate.

Can you use “he” in a research paper?

As far as academic writing is concerned, pronouns may be simple to define but very confusing to use. Even though the use of a particular pronoun may sound correct, some points should be taken into account. In general terms, it is acceptable to use word “he” in a research paper. As well as with other personal pronouns, the use of “he” depends on the field of research. It is not a grammatical mistake to use “he” when referring to a singular agenda or “they” in case you refer to a plural form. Most forms of assignments are still okay with this. However, if you want to adhere to the existing academic rules, it is much better to use “he or she” instead of merely “he” to avoid possible gender-biased language. According to some newer versions, it is even preferable to use “they” instead of “he or she.” In fact, the sentence with “they” may sound more respectful and flow better in a sentence. Lastly, to avoid any biases, it is possible to use “a person” instead. Try to remove this person factor to make sure that your paper is flawless. The only case when it is needed to use the pronoun “he” is when you refer to a specific subject of male sex.

Can you use “etc.” in a research paper?

Every student will find the use of “etc.” generally prevailing in academic writing. Most people use it in their writing assignments. However, some individuals avoid it as they are afraid to make possible grammar mistakes. The term “et cetera” is a synonym for “so forth” and helps to decrease the list of things. First of all, it helps to avoid the redundancy of the information. Also, it assists in securing the tone of academic writing as is an excellent analog for “so on” that is not acceptable in a research paper. However, in case you use “et cetera” in your academic papers, you need to know some basic rules.

Firstly, one of the most significant points in using etc. at the end of a particular list is that all its components are related, for ex. “It is necessary to investigate our emotions, including joy, anger, fear, etc.” Also, an essential rule that most students ignore is if you introduce the list using “such as” it is recommended not to use “etc.” as the meaning is already apparent. One more rule is that one should never use “and” before “etc.” to avoid redundancy.

As far as the norms of punctuation are concerned, it is a well-known fact that “etc.” is an abbreviated form of “et cetera.” Hence, it is significant to place a period after it in every case. If a student uses “etc.” in the middle of a sentence, it is necessary to use a comma after it. Lastly, it significant to not use “etc.” more than once in one sentence as it is more informal language. All in all, remembering the rules of using “etc.” in your research paper, you may use this abbreviated form without any fear.

Can you say “You” in a research paper

If you are a student who is completing your academic paper for the first time, you may struggle to understand if you can use You in research papers you are going to write. If you want the quick answer to this question here it is – no, you mustn’t use the word “you.” It may surprise you as it is appropriate to use “you” when you are appealing to someone. However, the research paper is not a personal letter or a fictional composition that allows using different techniques to attract the audience. The research paper is an academic assignment, and you should remember that the research community will read you. Writing with “you” sounds too conversational and informal lessening the quality of your paper. Additionally, using this word in your research paper shows the low level of your intelligence.

Remember that a research paper is academic writing, not a direct personal conversation with one reader. Think carefully about which phrases could help you to avoid the unnecessary word and try to write properly.

Can you say “My” in a research paper

While you are completing an academic paper, particularly the research paper, you should be extremely careful to use the word “my.” That could not satisfy you but using personal bias in academic writing should be avoided. The reason is obvious: when you use this word you accentuate the audience’s attention only on your own experience. However, your experience is not enough to complete an academic paper. Accentuate more on the concrete details and facts to create a perfect research paper. In order to avoid the word “my” prepare some alternative objective phrases that would not make a focus on your person but will accentuate on the research facts and results.

Remember that your goal is to sound persuasive and qualified. Additionally, if you are a student, you want to receive the highest grade for your paper. For that reason, do everything you can to develop your writing skills and stick to the rules.

Can you use “Us” in a research paper

If you strongly decided to create a perfect research paper, try to avoid using any 1st person pronouns, including the word “us.” You should always keep in mind that such word makes you sound too informal and not intelligent enough. When you are completing group research, you may automatically use the word “us” and similar ones but make sure you avoid them. Remind yourself that you must sound objective in your paper. It is not your personal conversation with the lector or the instructor from the college. It is academic writing, and it requires academic language to be used. If you are a beginner writer and have not yet developed enough writing skills, you should be careful with such little words that show the lack of your competence. Try to avoid all of them to achieve the better results.

Can you say “Our” in a research paper

Like all the other words mentioned above, the word “our” should not be used in any academic writing and the research paper is not an exception. So, if you are wondering whether it is allowed to build the sentences with the pronoun “our,” we can give you the direct answer: “No, it isn’t.” The word “our” accentuate on the first person, in this case, it may be a group of people that were doing the current research. There is no doubt that the observation and experiments you have done are successful and worth to be taken into consideration, but you should not attract the reader’s attention to the person. You aim to present the result of the research, supporting them by facts and details discovered in the process of completing the paper.

For that reason, try to present the facts in your research paper objectively and avoid using first-person pronouns.

Can you use “They” in a research paper

The word “they” is another personal pronoun that often confuses the students while they are completing an academic paper. There is no the strict rule of using this word as it mostly depends on the context in which the word is placed. You should stick to the one rule: every word in your research paper should make a sense and not be meaningless. Keep this in your mind and whenever you want to use the word “they,” ask yourself: “Who exactly are they?” If it is obvious from the context who they are, you surely can use this word. However, if you want to sound more qualified and proficient try to find more objective alternatives instead of using the personal pronouns too many times. Do not forget that it is an academic paper and you are supposed to be formal and considered.