Child Marriage in Bangladesh

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Child Marriage in Bangladesh BY Arranger North South University Course: Eng 105 Section: 4 Research Paper: Child Marriage in Bangladesh Submitted to: “BBC” Submitted by: Acknowledgement: I express my deepest gratitude to our Honorable faculty Dry. Deana. Forman. I am deeply indebted to my friends who had helped me to collect relevant information regarding my research paper. Thanks to the authority of NSA library for helping me to find books which are relevant to my research.

Finally, I take this opportunity to extend my deep appreciation to my family for all that they meant to me during the racial times of the completion of my project. Abstract of the research paper: This paper explores the issue of early marriage in Bangladesh. It sheds light specifically on reason behind its perpetuation, its harmful consequences, shows how further threatens the development of countries.

The findings from an extensive reading of materials related to early marriage suggest that early marriage is due to various factors including among others, the search for protection of young girls, peer group and family pressure, controlling female behavior and sexuality, wars and civil conflicts and socio-cultural and religious values. It is a violation of girl’s human rights as it deprives her from freedom, opportunity for personal development, and other rights. It also a developmental challenge for population pressure, health care costs and lost opportunities of human development.

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Young girls are robbed of their youth Page | 2 and required to take on roles for which they are not psychologically or physically prepared. Many have no choice about the timing of marriage or their partner. Some are coerced into marriage, while others are too young to make an informed decision. Premature marriage deprives them of the opportunity for personal development as well as their rights to full reproductive health and wellbeing, education, and participation in civic life.

The literature identifies many interrelated factors almost animal worldwide with small variations between societies that interact to place a girl child at risk of early marriage. Those factors include among others, search for economic survival, protection of young girls, peer group and family pressure, controlling female behavior and sexuality, wars and civil conflicts, minimization of fertility where infant mortality is very high. Early marriage contributes to a series of negative consequences both for young girls and the society in which they live.

It is a violation of human rights in general and of girl’s rights in particular. For both girls ND boys, early marriage has profound physical, intellectual, psychological and emotional impacts; cutting off educational and employment opportunities and chances of personal growth. In this paper more emphasis is given to girls as this is an issue that impacts upon girls in far larger numbers and with more intensity. Besides having a negative impact on girls themselves, the practice of early marriage also has negative consequences on their children, families, and society as a whole.

EUNICE (2000) argues that it is not only girls that pay for early marriage but also the society as a whole. Population pressure, health care costs and lost opportunities of because of teenage pregnancies. Early Page | 3 marriage also undermines international efforts to fight against poverty in developing countries. Bunch (2005) makes it clear that the widespread practice of child marriage makes it increasingly difficult for families to escape poverty in the developing world, thereby undermining critical international efforts to fight poverty.

Top 20 Countries with Highest Prevalence of Child Marriage Page | 4 What is Child Marriage? The term “early marriage” is used to refer to both formal marriages and informal ions in which a girl lives with a partner as if married before age of 18 (EUNICE 2005; Forum on Marriage and the rights of women and girls 2001). For UNIFY (2006) Early marriage, also known as Child marriage, is defined as “any marriage carried out below the age of 18 years, before the girl is physically, physiologically, and psychologically ready to shoulder the responsibilities of marriage and childbearing. Child marriage, on the other hand, involves either one or both spouses being children and may take place with or without formal registration, and under civil, religious or customary laws. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAR), the most comprehensive international bill of rights for women, states that any betrothal or marriage of a child should not have any legal status.

The Committee that monitors this convention states further in General Recommendation 21 (Article 16(2)) that the minimum age for marriage for both male and female should be 18 years, the age when “they have attained full maturity and capacity to act”. Most early marriages are arranged and based on the consent of parents and often fail to ensure the best interests of the girl child. Early marriages often include some elements of force. The lack of an overarching definition of early marriage in international conventions has generated some debate.

Some scholars and activists, argue that instead of looking for a universal age at which girls and boys should not marry, the focus should be put instead on eliminating the unwanted effects of early marriage. Page | 5 Child Marriage in Bangladesh: Bangladesh has one of the highest rates of child marriage in the world. According to Niece’s State of the World’s Children (201 1), one-third of women aged 20-24 in Bangladesh are married by the age of 15 and about two-thirds by the age of 18.

A recent study by the International Centre for Diarrhea Disease Research in Bangladesh (CAP, CDR,B & Plan Bangladesh 2012) shows an improving trend, with 64 per cent of women in the 20-24 age group married before 18 years of age. A higher proportion of women (71 per cent) in rural areas are married before 18 years strong associations among child marriage, education and economic status, with higher rates of child marriage among women with low or no education and for those from families living in poverty. There has been only a very slight increase in the average girl’s age for marriage, from 16 years in 2004 to 16. In 2007. Table: married by 18 years old Niger 77% Chad Bangladesh Mali 65% Guiana Nepal 56% Macaque 57% Uganda 54% Page | 6 Areas to Be Studied At this point in my research I have identified the following 4/5 questions to investigate: 1 . What are the reasons for child marriages? 2. Who are the main victims of child marriages? 3. What affirmative actions can be taken to stop child marriages? 4. What are the impacts of child marriage on society? 5. What impact does child marriage have in a child’s life? Lack of knowledge, Education and Poverty are the main reason for child marriage.

People who are uneducated and poor tend to get their child married at an early stage to get rid of their family members. Through this they also think that they are getting settled early but ignore the fact that this is greatly hampering their child and their own future. Methodology Primary Source (Survey) Primary research will be done in general people of Bangladesh through questionnaire to find out the effects and reasons of child marriage. Also, within the North South University campus to find out what are the opinions of people on Child arraign.

I Target Group The target groups of my research in general people both higher and lower class, educated and uneducated people. Also my second target groups are the people from north south university who will give their opinion and suggestions on how to avoid it. II Sample Size In my research I used 40 samples for better result. I will tried to take sample as more as possible. The main reason is that more samples will give accurate result. Ill Supervision of Monitoring This research conducted for academic purpose as the partial fulfillment of the course titled “Advanced Composition”.

I myself supervised my survey. IV Interview: I took three interviews whom were in three different occupation. I took one teacher, one housewife and one maid servant’s interview for getting a better result and knowing about their point of view regarding child marriage. Secondary Source For my secondary research, I used various resources from the Internet, and used search engines like Google, Ask, etc. I collected information from the article of the journals and newspapers. I tried to collect information from books also from the library of North South University.

I also gathered information from research paper on child marriage done by others. Page | 8 Primary Data & Analysis: Findings from my survey: What are the reasons for child marriages? The X axis shows options for reasons behind the child marriage and Y axis shows the percentage of the people’s vote. In my survey we can see that 37. 5% people said that the reason behind the child marriage is “illiterate people” means they blame the lack of education of this country’s people, mostly the educated people ticked in this option & this is the highest reason ticked by the people.

Then we can see that 27. 5% people stand with “lack of income” means poverty, mostly the poor or lower class people ticked in this. My 3rd option is “family & society trend”, & 20% people think it is the reason behind the child marriage as we see still there is many educated family also give their child early marriage only because of family trend. In Old Dacha it is a very child marriage. The 4th option was “Religion purpose” & 15% people stand with it. There is also lots of family who still believes that it is a farad to give their daughter married as soon as possible.

So, it is another reason behind the child marriage. Page 19 Who are the main victims of child marriages? The X axis shows the age range of children mainly victims of child marriage and Y axis shows the percentage of the people’s vote. Here we can see, that only 2. 5% vote for the age of 5-areas child are victim of this. 35% says that the 8-arrears old are the mainly victim age for child marriage. 50%, the highest vote is stand for the age of 12-15 years old child are the mostly victim of this child marriage. Then, the 4th option, which is 15-arrears old range is 12. % voted. Page | 10 What impact does child marriage have in a child’s life? In this pie chart we can see the impacts of child marriage in a child’s life. There are three options, 1st loss of opportunity for Jobs, 2nd premature pregnancy, 3rd abuse & abandonment & last option was “all of them”. Most of the people, means the 68% people vote for the 4th option which is “all of them”. As educated people know, child marriage isn’t good for a child life, even lower & uneducated people also support in this matter. They also ticked for the 4th option which is “all of them”.

Then we can see, 20% people says only premature pregnancy is the impacts of child marriage. 7% & 5% says loss of opportunity for Job & education, & abuse & abandonment is other impacts of child marriage. Do people support child marriage or not? Page Ill In this graph we try to find how much people support child marriage or not. We find out that only 2% people strongly support the child marriage. 33% people think it depends on rage here. & 25% people says they don’t support child marriage but even though they have no problem with it.

For me, it was really so much disappointing that, those people who are not support it but still they have no problem with it, so for me they are indirectly supporting the child marriage. This is one more reason why the bad impacts of child marriage even though they indirectly support it, they don’t take any steps to stop it. Package What is the best time to get married? I asked one more question to know about the general people’s perception about the age range of married. My question was what the best time to get married is. 57. 5% people answer 20-25 is the right time to get married & it is the highest voted option.

Most of the educated people ticked for this option & also many housewives & 2/3 uneducated persons also agree with this option. 30% people think for 15-20 is the right age to get married, mostly lower class people support for this. 7. 5% says, above 25 is the right time, mainly teachers vote for this option, they says after establishing doing a Job a girl should be married. Only 5% says it’s better to marry in age of 10-15 years old. Page | 13 Secondary data & Analysis: In my secondary data I go through internet, newspaper, Journals and books.

I take some of information from some Child Marriage related books which I managed from the North South university’s Library. In internet I go through lots of articles, Journals, research paper to know about this topic more briefly. Then I found my important information that Child marriage is not only a problem of Bangladesh, it’s a problem of worldwide. There are many countries which are facing this problem. South Asia is mostly facing this problem. The culture is the main problem behind the fact of child marriage. Bangladesh is the 3rd highest country where child marriage happened in a rapid way.

In our country many women die because of the premature pregnancy which is causes of child marriage. I also read some newspaper, about this fact. Some days back, I got a article in “Prophet Allow”s- ‘Nair Mach’, where I found almost 5/6 women’s life story those who married in childhood. Some were abused by husband & in-laws, some were lost their baby for premature pregnancy, one is fighting with her life as she is so sick. I also found many relevant information from internet by which I could make this research paper more fruitful.

I also found some organizations & No’s name who are working for preventing child marriage in Bangladesh. I add a list of them in below. Page | 14 Preventing child marriage in Bangladesh The MEG-Fund is working to change the future for girls in Bangladesh who are facing this problem. In partnership with the development organization BRAT, local to prevent child marriage, stop dowry practices and provide support for survivors of gender-based violence. Joint UN initiative and UNDO are two more organizations inning the program on violence in child marriage area and stands for children rights and child brides.

The Joint Programmed to Address Violence against Women in Bangladesh involves nine UN agencies, 11 government ministries and a large number of local development partner. It operates on three tiers: strengthening the policy and legal framework in order to reduce violence against women, changing attitudes of men, women and youth to affect behavior related to violence, and protecting survivors of gender-based violence. Some Organizations & No’s name who work for child’s right & child marriage: AVGAS

Association of Voluntary Action for Society BANAL SODS BIT BPCS Bangladesh National Women”s Lawyer Association Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey Bangladesh Institute of Theatre Associations Bangladesh Population and Health Consortium page | 15 FIGS Focus Group Discussions FEMUR Forum on Marriage and the Rights of Women and Girls Ingots International Non-governmental Organizations IIS MUGS MOM MIFF NAGS SAA VARY UNDO EUNICE VASS Grata Cuba Shanghai Millennium Development Goals Ministry of Health Ministry of Health, Family and Women Affairs Non Governmental Organizations Sylphs Job Academy

Voluntary Association for Rural Development United Nations Development Program United Nations Voluntary Health Services (VASS) Page | 16 Conclusion: The study findings confirm that the child marriage is still a widespread practice in Bangladesh. Still Bangladesh people are not that much serious about this problem & mostly the rural & lower class uneducated people are very careless about this subject, though now-a-days lots of uneducated & lower class people also know the impacts & bad effects of the child marriage.

But still it is happening for financial problem of lower class people, as they think child marriage can solve their poverty which is totally a wrong perception. & there are also one sector persons live in the society who are educated, know about the bad impacts but not serious or bother about this matter. They are also a reason why this problem is not decreasing yet. & that purpose also. It is very important to get rid from this problem as soon as possible.

Governmental and non-governmental bodies need to come together to promote advocacy and raise awareness on this issue, being sure to reach out to the poorest and most rural communities in Bangladesh, in order to advance national as well as wider, global, development. Page | 17 Limitations: There are many limitations to this study. A limitation is this is a convenience sample. Forty respondents are not enough to generalize the result of this study of child marriage’s problems, solutions in Bangladesh.

Time was another problem to get all the staffs on time, as there were harts & strikes were going through in this country. One more limitation was, I couldn’t go for rural areas people for time limitations. And only twelve question survey and 3 interviews may not enough to get the right result & candidates could careless also, they might not much serious and could Just tick the options for their busy schedule and personal works.

One very important limitation was that some of the respondents might have not been honest. Page | 18 Recommendation: Preventive Approach: Preventive approach considers the long-term endeavors to work against early marriage with multifaceted policies and programs. Government, donor agencies, Nags and civil societies could work together with some individual interventions. National policies, laws, annual development plan, designs of programs, social advocacy and evaluation and monitoring system should be coherent and