One aspect that the games has used to its advantage is the massive media attention which the Olympic games has attracted since the first time it was fully televised during the 1936 games in Berlin. Terrorists in particular have taken the irresistible opportunity of exploiting the games for their own means by conducting attacks.
This research paper discusses security measures in place before 9/1 1 and critically analyses if the measures and hypersensitivity of the measures in place after the disaster are justified as another paradigm shift in risk management or if they have Just gone too Acknowledgements During this project the author has been helped massively by the access granted by the University of Northampton to the vast amount of online sources including SAGE, Minute, Emerald as well as the International Olympic Committee’s vast archive of information on past Olympics especially the reports on individual Olympic Games.
Other huge aids to this study have been the guidance provided by the author’s research project tutor and course leader through guidance documents and lecture sessions. Lastly the writer would like to express thanks to all friends, family and work colleagues for their cooperation during the busy final year of University.
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Introduction Background Since the revival of the Olympics in 1894 caused by the arguments by Baron Pierre De simple town sports festival to the massive multi million pound extravagant mega vent, which captures the hearts and minds of billions of people around the world. For a host nation, holding the Olympics is a symbol of prestige, power and political authority, however in some past Olympic Games’ there have been circumstances which have resulted in incidents that have meant the games, or even the periods after holding the games have been particularly turbulent.
There is constant pressure for the host nations committee to pull of a successful and financially fruitful event, and at the same time there is always that little bit of political rivalry in the shadows of one country trying to out do another. With all the growth and changes that come every four years in the Olympics, in order to create a better more smoothly running Olympics there has to be some semblance of standardization otherwise if the games are too diverse, it would seem as though the whole idea which started the games is absent.
As such there are guidelines that must be followed so that the spirit of the Olympic Movement is kept and Pierre De Subroutine’s values and beliefs are followed. The International Olympic Committee (OIC) necessitate the use of a vast variety of tools, rules, guidelines and routines; which control the aspects of the mega event it memos should be done a specific way, one main purpose of this according to Hill (1992) is that it remains the number one mega-event that has no equivalent competitor.
Topic For this research paper; there was no point in choosing a topic that the author had no interest in, so the first step in the decision making process was to decide on the vague topic area that was interesting and has the capability of having some form of theory which applies to the course studied by the author over the last three years. The vague topic that was first selected was the Olympics and other sporting events animal in size and quality.
In order to choose a question to write the research paper on, the writer used secondary research to see what information was available on different aspects of the Olympics and other mega events and eventually due to the writers personal links with the military and interest in sports the final topic that was selected was to look into the security in and around the Olympics and what impacts certain events in the history of the Olympics and terrorism had on security. The reason the final topic was selected was due to the massive impacts that 1 lath of
September 2001 caused on the world of security, using this issue this paper will further look into the development of security measures that were established before the 1 lath of September 2001; caused by other incidents and also take a look at what security measures that were made and discussions that took place after the disasters Objectives and Aims of Research Project Without having a set of objectives and aims for a research paper, all the author would be doing is looking for information on a topic and writing it down whereas with objectives, the research has a meaning and the paper will have an end result.
The aims and objectives of this paper are as follows. 1. To gain an understanding of the security and risk management impacts that terror attacks both before and after September 1 lath 2001. 2. To discuss and decide whether or not the measures and costs are hypersensitivity or Just good risk management. Research Strategy What is research? The method that will be used to collect information for this research paper will be entirely using secondary research or desk research. This is the most common form of research that is used in the marketing industry today.
This is mainly due to the time t takes to gather the information and the cost of conducting the research, it doesn’t take a highly paid or vastly qualified marketing expert to trawl through information already conducted by other experts in the industry, which means that the business saves a lot of money by not having vast numbers of employees conducting primary research to find out what people think about a topic. For a paper in this format secondary research is definitely the best choice because of the disadvantages of primary research and the suitability for the chosen topic.
There will on offer be both alliterative and quantitative data, the majority of this research project will use qualitative data because of the nature of the objectives but also some of the quantitative data found on certain aspects of the topic will be useful in demonstrating change. Using secondary research, the author will consult studies made in the past by industry experts such as reports, press articles and previous market research projects to discuss the topic at hand.
Advantages and disadvantages of Secondary Research The main disadvantage of using secondary research is that the data found and used loud be outdated; this means that the researcher must ensure that all data found is relevant to the topic and does not take the direction of the paper away from the main question and issue. Another disadvantage could be that the information already published that has been collected may not have been collected for the same purpose that this research project has.
However, despite these disadvantages there are many advantages to secondary research, some of the main ones are the resources that it needs to be carried out, more specifically the resources it does not need, and these re primarily the amount of time that is needed to conduct the research compared to business or researcher has to spend to conduct research is greatly reduced if the research has already been done and has been published. Qualitative and Quantitative Research During the research gathering procedure of this paper, the author came across both qualitative and quantitative data; both of which will be useful in this paper.
The majority of information found by the researcher was in the qualitative format due to the nature of the topic and most of the issues presented having been discussed exulting in opinions and descriptions. Using both qualitative and quantitative data will help the author reach the aims and objectives of the research paper by providing information on how the Olympics have changed, presenting discussions on the Olympic security and by giving hard data on spending through the years which may give insight on how the terror attacks through the years have impacted on the Olympics that follow them.
Applied vs.. Fundamental Research C. R. Katharine discusses the differences between applied or action research and fundamental or pure research, he mentions that applied research is used when the aims and objectives of a research paper or study are to come to a final conclusion or solution to an immediate problem facing the world. Furthermore he stated that the fundamental or pure research is done with the goal of creating a general consensus of the research out there and comes to conclusion in a theory or another opinion.
Sources of Information The sources that the author will use for secondary research will mainly be those that the University of Northampton can provide to its students, these include Internet journal databases such as Sage, Emerald and Minute as well as Google books, News articles, Books and industry data. One source which will be particularly useful for the data on the Olympics will be the International Olympic Committee’s website which contains lots of information on the Olympics, although one disadvantage of this source is that there is so much information available to the public it could be difficult to sift through.
The main method of accessing the reports, Journal articles, websites, books and news articles will be via the University of Northampton NELSON data portal. Search Terms Used. Was to take a very broad look at all the information and different types of sources that loud be used. Using NELSON, the data portal of University of Northampton the author used terms such as Olympic Security and Terrorism to gain a grasp of which sources had the most information available on the topic.
Once a few articles of background information and cases on the topic had been found the researcher moved on to more specific areas which were to be explored in the paper by using filter functions to narrow results to both before and after September the 1 lath 2001, this gave the author a way to separate information which could be useful for both sides of the topic. Olympic Security Terrorism
Throughout the millennia there have been terrorists, they may not have been defined so brutally but they have been there; from a rebel in a tribe of Neanderthals destroying a statue of another tribes god, to the Irish Republican Army attacking British occupying forces, all the way up to al Qaeda today attacking the very idea of western power. The FBI defines terrorism in two ways; domestic and international, the first being the unlawful use, or threatened use, of force or violence by a group or individual based and operating entirely within the USA without foreign direction, and whose acts are directed at elements of the U.
S. Government or its population, in furtherance of political or social goals. International terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property committed by a group or individual who has some connection to a foreign power or whose activities transcend national boundaries. Security Issues and Discussions Pre 1 lath September 2001 Since the first Olympics in Greece thousands of years ago there have been countless changes to different aspects of how the Olympics are planned and executed.
During the years trailing the terrible September 1 lath terror attacks on the United States in New York and Washington D. C the world has become increasingly concerned about the security of many events, especially the huge mega events such as the summer Olympic games. For those people who do not follow the Olympic beliefs of peace and friendship the games that happen every four years present a real temptation for a terror attack. Olympic games on many occasions, one of these incidents was during the 1972 games in Munich or Munich massacre as it came to be known.
This saw eleven Israeli Olympian seized and held hostage by eight members of the Palestinian terrorist cell Black September which is believed to be an armed militant wing of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (lead by Hauser Arafat) on the 5th of September in the Olympic village, after a failed rescue attempt all of the athletes and all but three of the terrorists were killed and forever put a dark shadow over the 20th Olympics and the second to be held in Germany after the first being in 1936 held under the Nazi regime.
This incident prompted obvious increases in security, people would no longer be able to gain access to the Olympic village so easily and for America especially took notice f the Munich Massacre and other terrorist acts during the sass’s and sass’s leading to Secretary of state William P. Rogers addressed the United Nations and made terrorism a global concern saying that “The issue is not war… Or] the strivings of people to achieve self-determination and independence, it is whether the vulnerable lines of international communication can continue, without disruption, to bring nations and peoples together. ” This incident, the impacts it had on the world and the actions that followed clearly demonstrate that even pre September 1 lath the world as starting to get worried about the rise in terrorism and the increase in security at the Olympics is clearly beginning to rise.
The next incident that will be discussed will be the 1968 Mexico massacre, although not a terrorist attack the event which resulted in the deaths of over two hundred student protesters 10 days before an Olympic games given to a country which was developing and given a chance to prove itself would have definitely impacted on future games and provided a What not to do’ in the case of protestors using the Olympics as a political tool to gain support.
There were many excused given for this ‘accident’ ranging from one which blamed the shooting on terrorists due to the possible appearance of a communist group who were apparently using the protest for their own means to an excuse involving a self styled “Olympia Battalion”, a shady paramilitary squad who fired on the crowds, panicking protestors and prompting the armed security forces of the government to open fire.
With the editors of newspapers and other news outlets firmly in the government’s pockets they were told to concentrate on the Olympic games and it was only three years later that the events ere finally properly publicized, the government claimed that extremist and communist agitators forced the presidents security forces to open fire. This can’t even be argued officially even today; government and armed forces documents on the confrontation remain secret and this Just goes to show how far a country will go to pull off a superficially successful Olympic games.
Perhaps the closest incident to the September 1 lath disaster was the 1996 centennial Olympic park bombing in Atlanta, Georgia. Although hosting the Olympic games for Centennial park was constructed in the centre of the downtown area, surrounded by abandoned lots and this was the main meeting and show area of the Olympics, it had huge stages, sound towers and screens which showed images and videos of the Olympic sporting events as well as the bands that would play on the evenings. It was on one of these evenings at around 1. Ma’am, which attracted over 50,000 spectators when Eric Rudolph planted a U.
S. Military bag, filled with 18 kilograms of explosives surrounded by nails in the Olympic park under a bench. This suspicious package was discovered by a security guard who called the Bureau of Investigation and some of the countries leading explosives experts were scrambled to he scene and started to evacuate the area, however due to clear poor risk management and lack of contingencies put in place for such an event the crowd exited very slowly due to high amounts of alcohol consumption and lack of communication to spectators on why they were being moved.
Twelve minutes after the order for the area near the device to be evacuated, the device exploded killing one person and injuring a further one hundred and eleven people; including security personnel and spectators as debris, nails, screws and shrapnel flew everywhere. There were many lessons learned because of the incident at the Atlanta games, it as clear now to event organizers that an eventful hosting over 5000 athletes from 197 countries would be an irresistible target to terrorist groups a high profile then attract global media attention meaning that the objectives are terrorists being noticed were met.
Following the incidents at the Centennial Park in 1996 the organizers of the next Olympics in Sydney decided to develop a strategy which was both very expensive and extensive, this included 4000 military personnel all this Australia special forces and over 30,000 private security guards. While the Minister John Moore concluded that here was ‘no specific threat of terrorism against Sydney 2000 games’ the New Wales chief of police argued that the Olympics was ‘an almost irresistible magnetic to terrorist groups’. This Just goes to show that even before September 1 lath there was a major concern about the rising terrorist threat in the world.
At the Sydney Olympics every venue was analyses from top to bottom, everything from structural integrity of buildings, electrical safety, fire safety and crowd control each venue assessment included major incident planning, emergency services personnel were drilled on what to do and the system that the Sydney Committee hose was very different from the model used in Atlanta for clear reasons, Mr. Hemolytic, the risk manager of the Sydney Organizing Committee for the Games On Tuesday 1 lath of September 2001 al Qaeda terrorists hijack a number of fully fuelled passenger airplanes two of these planes had their planned courses changed and were flown in a kamikaze style into the World Trade Center is higher floors on the Twin Towers causing them to fall and explode to the ground killing an injuring thousands of people who were in and around the towers even at street level.
There have been many speculations as to the reasons why AH Qaeda chose the Twin Towers for their attack; one of the most viable reasons is because they were filled to the brim with thousands of office workers who work long hours. The second possible reason was due to the fact both the Pentagon (which was also attacked on September 1 lath) and the World Trade Centre are both widely familiar symbols of the United States global power. Since these attacks in 2001 security all over the world has been increased airports and even small events have now had increased security measures trying to prevent terrorist from bombing or simply bringing weapons into venues.
Mathew Breeziness (2004) says that post-WI 1 the USA has become a real and virtual fortress wherein the security reach of the state is extensive and all pervasive. Other measures, which have been implemented worldwide, include the banning of liquids on planes; this is due to technological advances in bomb-making meaning liquids can be used as simple explosives could take down an airplane at high altitude. The Incidents of 2001 not only lead the United States to massively increase the security within its own borders but also resulted in the USA collaborating with the next three Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Beijing and London. The 2004 Olympic games being the first scheduled after the disasters of 2001 in the USA meant that all stakeholders involved were on high alert, USA and Greece in particular.
However, despite all the worries about more terror attacks, the OIC and Athens Olympic organizers were confident that they did everything in their power to ensure that no incidents happened at the Olympics in 2004. “This summer, no nation will be doing more than Greece to protect those within its borders,” says Athens Organizing Chief Giant Anglophiles-Dashiki. “No organizing committee and no host government eave ever put greater emphasis on safety and security. Greece has the budget, the protect the Olympic games. ” For example, the budget for the 2004 Olympic security was over 1. 5 billion dollars, compared to the budgets of security of the previous Olympics in Sydney, which was only 180 million dollars. The 2008 Olympic games was in Beijing China, a country governed by a communist rule.
As such the collaboration from the USA wont be as appreciated as it was in Athens as they obviously view security threats in different ways, an Journal on china security in 2008 discussed how the Chinese security priorities included unauthorized lattice expression, nonviolent demonstrations as well as violent expressions whereas the USA obeys the laws of free speech and non violent expression. Similar to Athens, the Chinese security ministry used its army and estimates were made that 92,500 people were needed to provide security, including 40,000 police, 27,500 armed police, 10,000 security guards and 5000 security volunteers. On the lead up to the games China tightened its grip on a vast variety of things which it deemed possible threats, this included foreign workers, parolees, ‘suspicious troubled persons’, racking down on crime in programs such as ‘Project Moat’ and ‘Action for a Safe Olympian’.
All these things included a huge increase in patrols and inspections, checking temporary residents and visas more stringently even restricting some types of visas issuance. With all the focus of the Beijing Organizing Committee being on internal threats’; some of which are as small as the Taiwan secessionists it did give confidence to the rest of the world that they already had a firm grasp on external threats. This is very important for the visiting nations especially the USA because of its huge stake in the Games, the US government will want the games to be incident free due to the large multinational corporations based in America being some of the largest sponsors of the Games.
Along with the National team and President Bush attending, America and China alike do not want a repeat of the Munich disaster or a presidential assassination or kidnapping. The Olympic games in 2012 were held in London, England; similar to the Atlanta games its main staging area was in the middle of a highly public area, which meant that security had to be an even greater concern than previous games. Lots of people round the world were very worried that London 2012 would be too much of an appetizing target for the terrorists around the world and an attack was inevitable, with London being seen as hand in hand with America not to mention its foreign policy with troops stationed in one of the key terrorist threats base of operations, Afghanistan (AH Qaeda).
Luckily for London, the city already had a very well established security infrastructure; over the years since the ass’s the city has sought to reduce the real and perceived threat of terrorism by vast networks of surveillance and counter terrorism operations. Sadly this was not enough on the lead up to the Olympic Games, not even twenty hours passed after the announcement that London was to host the Games in July 2005 there was a series of co-ordinate suicide attacks in London, four Salamis indigenous terrorists attacked the public transport networks people and injuring over seven hundred. Although the Deputy Assistant Commissioner Stuart Osborne stated that terrorist plots similar to this are foiled every year this one must have slipped off the radar.
The Times reports that on the day of the attack, security alarms were raised all over the UK with undercover police nipper squads demonstrating how well the I-J responds to possible threats by tracking dozens of AH Qaeda suspects. In some towns in the I-J where the crime rate is high, metal detectors have even been installed in train stations to prevent people from taking weapons onto trains. Examples of these measures being implemented in the Olympic games, can be found especially in 2012 London Olympics in the United Kingdom, some venues such the areas used for sailing and rowing spectators wouldn’t even allow picnic tables onto the grounds unless they had been scanned and inspected at security points.