Speech disorders Communication Research Paper There are many times in everyday life that there is miscommunication in delivering a message to others; at one point or another, miscommunication will happen to everyone. Often the miscommunication is out of one’s control there is simply a misunderstanding of the intended message. Speech disorders are a type of communication disorders where ‘normal’ speech is disrupted. A problem within society is the belief that speech disorders have a simple explanation as to why it exists.
While it is difficult to accurately pinpoint the explanation of why speech disorders exists, this paper will shed some light onto what is considered to be a speech disorders, how they are developed, and some of the symptoms associated. Because there is a certain level of complexity in the development, it is impossible to attribute any particular characteristics to speech disorders. However, I will be using two communication theories as possible tools for grasping the social dimensions associated with speech disorders. What is considered to be a speech disorder is somewhat hard to define.
Speech disorder is an umbrella term for any one of the following: articulation disorder, phonological disorder, apraxia of speech, fluency disorder, or voice disorder (Bleile, 2004). Persons who have articulation disorder can be known to do one or more of the following: delete sounds (bu/ instead of /bus/), substitute sounds (sree/ instead of /three/), add sounds (spagbetti/ instead of /spaghetti) or distort sounds (thpoon/ instead of /spoon). Phonological disorder occurs when a child does not develop the ability to produce some or all sounds necessary for speech that are normally used at his or her age.
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The difference between the two: Articulation is the correct movement of the speech producers to make intelligible speech. Phonology deals with the rules (patterns) of the sound system of language. These disorders can be caused/characterized by a multitude of things: an individual using the repetition of sounds, cancer of the throat, making words longer, eye blinking while talking, having tooth problems, shape of the muscles and bones, damage to parts of the brain, and sounds being substituted, left off, added, or changed among a multitude of other things that are used to escribe some of the symptoms and causes of speech disorders. Using these examples, it is obvious that this is a very common problem. Speech disorders can define almost anyone in current society; it is not exclusive to any group in particular. In fact, it is said that only 5% to 10% of the population has a completely normal manner of speaking (with respect to all parameters) and healthy voice; all others suffer from one disorder or another. Roughly five percent of all youth, aged from birth to twenty-one years old, has speech or language impairments (Turnbull, 2004).
This particular study showed that speech disorders are not exclusive to any one culture or nationality in particular; rather that it is a global problem containing many catalysts. Speech disorders in America are more common than we may think. By the time children enter the first grade, five percent are diagnosed with speech disorders. Statistically, between six and eight million Americans have some kind of language impairment (Turnbull, 2004).
Communication disorders affect one out of every ten people in the Unites States and more than one million students had a speech or language impairment for the 2000-2001 school years (“Speech Sound Disorders: Causes and Number,” 2009). This means that language impairment to Americans is statistically as common as being under the care of a chiropractor. These numbers show there are a high percentage of speech disorders, but how they are caused is still somewhat unknown. What exactly causes speech disorders has remained somewhat anonymous.
Speech and language disorders can be related to other disorders, or can stand-alone. Hearing, health and medical problems can also cause the disorder to occur. Some of the disorders it is related to are cleft palate or lip, hearing loss, auditory processing disorder, autism, and cerebral palsy. Many authors have shown that an early language delay can be related to later speech difficulties. (Broomfield ; Dodd, 2004). Young adults who experience frequent ear infections when they were young are at risk for speech sound disorders if the ear infections were accompanied by hearing loss.
Ear infections may explain in part some of the medical reasons this speech disorder occurs, but there may be an assortment of causes that leads someone to have a speech disorder. Many speech sound disorders occur without a known cause. A child may not learn how to produce sounds correctly or may not learn the rules of speech sounds on his or her own. These children may have a problem with speech development, which does not always mean that they will simply outgrow it by themselves. Many children do develop speech sounds over time but those who do not often need help to learn correct speech sounds. “Speech Sound Disorders: Causes and Number,” 2009) Both children and adults can have speech disorders. According to Huaqing Qi, this can be due to the fact that children with speech and language disorders may have trouble communicating with their peers while playing or solving problem. Adults can also have speech sound disorders. Some adults continue to have problems from childhood, while others may develop speech problems after a stroke or injury. Apraxia of speech is a motor speech disorder; it is caused by damage to the parts of the brain related to speaking.
People with apraxia of speech have trouble sequencing the sounds in syllables and words. The severity depends on the nature of the brain damage. Damage to the left side of the brain causes aphasia for most right-handers and about half of left-handers. Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder. The muscles of the mouth, face, and respiratory system may become weak, move slowly, or not move at all after a stroke or other brain injury. The type and severity of dysarthria depend on which area of the nervous system is affected. Some causes of dysarthria include stroke, head injury, cerebral palsy, and muscular dystrophy.
Both children and adults can have dysarthria and both are affected by speech disorders, whether they are developed early in life and lasted into adulthood, or they are developed as an adult. A more complex way of understanding what causes a “speech disorder” may be in the way we acquire them. The theory of Symbolic Interactionism is the individual meaning one puts onto objects, places, or people based on personal experience and understanding. An individual’s social and cultural interactions affect the way they may interpret another with a speech disorder.
Cultural interactions refer to the cultural aspects that may influence one’s thinking, views, and understandings. Symbolic interactionism may help explain why people misinterpret one another based on individual differences. The use of symbols in the symbolic interaction perspective help identity cognitive tags that initiate memories and experiences that have happened in the past. So, an individual’s social and cultural interactions affect the way they believe speech disorders have simple explanations, whether they are positive or negative. When a speech disorder has been dentified, it may trigger a cognitive tag associated with personal experiences. Because of this, there may be an unwarranted feeling of knowledge as to how the speech disorder developed. For example, if someone has a slow drawn out use of the letter “r” it might be interpreted as a speech disorder because of past experiences, yet it could simply mean they are employing a geographical accent. Social penetration theory is the dynamics of relational closeness. Closeness through two people occurs through a gradual process of self-disclosure, and the more you disclose the more you know about that person.
Using the theory of social penetration, some people may choose to limit their interactions with individuals that have lisp speech disorders. Kenneth Button and Fabio Rossera in “Barriers to Communication” state that Speech disorders can be a barrier of communication between two parties thus affecting the relationship. When someone with a speech disorder begins to communicate, there may be enough of a miscommunication that there’s no desire to want to know more about the individual. The idea might be that if they cannot deliver a message the same way that mainstream society does, there is a tendency to dismiss them.
Having a speech disorder can often be seen as detrimental to the communication process. Both of the theories listed above agree; there is ultimately a tendency for others in mainstream society to minimize communication with the individual because of the disorder. Speech disorders are not viewed as appropriate by mainstream cultures standards. “Communication studies are built in a world of meanings, not a physical one,” when it cannot be defined in terms of meanings, it is often found frustrating (West ; Turner, 2010). When someone cannot properly code their messages of that given society, they will struggle in that society.
There is an advantage to understand that communication is in constant flux adapting to any given situation. If society can understand that this is true, there may be fewer frameworks imposed on people that may not follow the same communication rules that the majority of society has. Understanding that there are multilayer’s of society and human behavior will help give us insight as to why there is equally a variety in speech impediments and intelligence. The ways communication problems are addressed are just as complex and evolving as the actual communication problem itself.
A blended perspective of the two theories listed above is one that will work best in understanding why speech impediments in communication can create the potential for imposed frameworks in perceived intelligence. The overview stated the definitions of a speech disorder and also gave insight as to what other disorders are related to it. The statistics showed that speech disorders are not uncommon and that it affects mostly the male gender. This paper shows that there is without doubt no one specific explanation as to why it exists. Speech disorders are sometimes hard to notice, but are common in almost every day encounters.
The miscommunication is almost done by anyone in current society; it is not exclusive to any group in particular. In America, the disorder is so common that it affects one in ten people. Delivering the message is affected by both physical and sociological aspects, much like the way Speech is initially developed in a multitude of ways. References Bleile, K. M. (2004). Manual of articulation and phonological disorders: infancy through adulthood. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning. Broomfield, J. , & Dodd, B. (2004). The nature of referred subtypes of primary speech disability.
Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 20(2), 135-151. doi: 10. 1191/0265659004ct267oa Button, K. , & Rossera, F. (1990). Barriers to communication. The Annals of Regional Science, 24(4), 337-357. doi: 10. 1007/BF01580478 Keller, W. D. , Tillery, K. L. , & McFadden, S. L. (2006). Auditory Processing Disorder in Children Diagnosed With Nonverbal Learning Disability. American Journal of Audiology, 15(2), 108-113. doi: 10. 1044/1059-0889(2006/014) Qi, C. H. (2004). Problem Behaviors of Low-Income Children With Language Delays: An Observation Study.
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47(3), 595-609. doi: 10. 1044/1092-4388(2004/046) Speech Sound Disorders: Causes and Number. (2009, September 15). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association | ASHA. Retrieved December 05, 2011, from http://www. asha. org/public/speech/disorders/SSDcauses. htm Turnbull, H. R. (2004). Exceptional lives: special education in today’s schools. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall. West, R. , ; Turner, L. H. (2010). Introducing communication theory analysis and application. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.