Conflict is a naturally inevitable part of human life worldwide1. It exists in all relationships, groups, culture and every level of social structure. Although, conflict is often uncomfortable and energy consuming, it can be a positive force for change and bring an otherwise stagnant relationship out of dormancy into a new life and vitality. Conflict is therefore an outcome of human interaction as a result of disagreement between individuals, parties or states. A conflict situation is characterized by the inability of those concerned to iron out their differences. Human wants are unlimited but the means to satisfy these wants are scarce. There is therefore, an inherent struggle in man for greater share of the limited resources. Conflict of interest is the result of these struggles. Most times, these conflicts at the micro level if not controlled can develop to conflict at the macro level such as communal, national, regional or even global. The existence of conflict connotes the presence of antagonisms or struggles by individuals, groups or organizations in the bid to pursue incompatible interests. When these struggles are not properly handled, they inevitably degenerate into violent conflicts.
Violent conflicts have devastating effects on individuals and their societies. It was the horrified effect of First World War that led to the creation of the League of Nations. The failure of the League to prevent another war and the bitter lessons of the Second World War fostered the transformation of the League of Nations into the United Nations (UN). The United Nations was charged with the maintenance of world peace, develop good relations between countries, promote cooperation in solving the world’s problems and encourage respect for human rights.
Dr Martin Luther King Jnr asserted that “a treat to peace anywhere is a threat to peace everywhere”. Thus, the UN was designed to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to world peace and the suppression of acts of aggression. The UN to manage violent conflicts between nations evolved Peace Support Operation (PSO). During the cold war era, most of the crises could have been attributed to ideological rivalry between the United States of America (USA) and the then Soviet Union with the support of their respective client states in Africa.
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However, conflicts in Africa assumed different description after the Cold War. The major conflicts, in the continent today take the form of internal conflicts rather than conflicts across national borders. 10 There have been violent conflicts in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Rwanda, Burundi, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Sudan among others. 1. 2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The occurrence of conflicts in Africa has become worrisome and their resolution has also been quite challenging.
After the cold war, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Cote D’Ivoire, Somalia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Rwanda and Sudan were engrossed in intra-state violent conflicts. These conflicts had devastating impact on Africa. It is estimated that millions of Africans lost their lives to these violence. The destruction of properties worth millions of dollars, refugees and displaced people were the aftermath of violent conflicts in Africa. In the post cold war era, the strategic withdrawal of ideological competition between the super powers changed the nature of conflicts in Africa.
These conflicts changed from inter-state to intra-state shortly after the cold war in 1990. Fierce ethnic rivalries, economic and social decays led to untold hardships that challenged the very existence of various African states. 1 This brought about new challenges to international peace and security as well as the United Nations. Ironically, Africa’s problems were perceived in a more limited regional context and responsibility for their solutions was shifted to the Africans themselves. The United Nations reluctantly played its role in managing conflicts in some African states.
The Sudanese crisis is the longest in Africa, and most neglected by the world until recently when the conflict reached its climax with the emergence of Darfur insurgency in February 2003 2. The conflict forcefully placed the Sudanese crisis on the world map when genocide tendencies were perceived. It took United Nations about 19 months to intervene in the devastating human tragedy that befell Somalia. Furthermore, the Liberian and the Rwanda’s post-cold war conflicts lingered for sometime before the UN responded. The Sudanese conflicts also experienced the same lag in UN’s response.
It is therefore obvious that swift reactions to conflicts have not been attained in UN Peace Support Operations in Africa. This research would be conducted to find answers to the following questions: a. What are the causes of conflicts in Africa and Sudan in particular? b. What role did the United Nations played in managing the conflict in Darfur? c. What are the mitigating factors against UN’s conflict management in Darfur? d. How can the United Nations effectively manage the conflict in Darfur? 1. 3OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad purpose of the study is to appraise the post Cold War role of the United Nations in conflict management in Africa with particular reference to Dafur. The specific objectives of the study are: a. To examine the nature and sources of conflicts in Africa and Darfur. b. To explore the roles of the United Nations in managing the violent conflict in Darfur. c. To examine the mitigating factors against the United Nations conflict management efforts in Darfur. d. To propose strategies for effective United Nations conflict management in Darfur. 1. 4SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this research are expected to broaden the reader’s knowledge on the roles of the United Nations in conflict management. It is also expected to evolve strategies for effective conflict management in Dafur and the international community thereby improving global peace and security. It will therefore be valuable to the United Nations, Regional conflict management bodies and scholars of world affairs. 1. 5SCOPE OF THE STUDY The Darfur conflict is an ongoing armed conflict in the Darfur Region of western Sudan, mainly between the Janjaweed (Devils on horse) and the land tilling tribes of the Region.
The study would therefore cover the period 2003 – 2007, which represents the main activities of the Janjaweed militia. The deductions from the analysis of the conflict in Darfur will be utilised in proposing strategies for effective management of conflict in Africa. 1. 6LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Due to distance and time constraints, collection of data through personal interview was limited to Nigerian Army Personnel who performed peacekeeping operations in Darfur. The lapse in human memory constituted a limitation to the study.
Balanced views could not be obtained from indigenes of the area under review. However deliberate efforts were made to ensure that these constraints had no significant impact on the study. 1. 7RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This research would be based on historical, analytic and comparative approaches. Both primary and secondary sources of data would be used. Primary data would be obtained through personal interviews and discussions with Nigerian Army officers who have participated in Peace Support Operations in Darfur.
Secondary data would be collected from books, journals, magazines and newspapers. Other sources would be obtained from the media, Microsoft Encarta 2006 and the Internet. Collected data would be analysed and systematically arranged in order to draw deductions. END NOTES 1. The UN: Origin , Purpose,” Principles and Structure ” 3 Mar 1995. 2. ” The Sudanese Crisis and the Darfur Dimension 1898-2005″ The Nigerian Army Information Brief. P1. 3. Ehsan US, Current Affairs (Lahore, Pakistan 2003). P 130. 4. Cohen PS, Modern social theory (London Heineman (1968). . Shedrack Op. Cit 41. 6. id. 7. id. 8. Ibid. P 47. 9. Ibid. P 45. CHAPTER TWO 2. 0LITERATURE REVIEW To effectively examine the role of the UN in managing conflicts in Africa, it is necessary to clarify some concepts in PSO before discussing the opinions of some scholars, leaders and researchers on conflicts and its management. These views will broaden our knowledge on the concepts associated with conflict management used in this study. Hence, this chapter would examine existing literature on conflict, conflicts management and the United Nations. 2. PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS PSO is a term first used by the military to cover peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations. The term is now used widely to cover other peace-related operations. The various types of PSO are preventive diplomacy, peace making, peace enforcement, peace keeping, wider peacekeeping and peace building. Preventive Diplomacy. Preventive diplomacy is defined as action to prevent disputes arising between parties. It is done to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts and to guide the spread of the latter when they occur. Peace Making.
Peace making entails action of bringing hostile parties to agreement essentially through peaceful means. It is conducted with the consent of both parties. Peace Enforcement. Peace Enforcement (PE) operations are concise operations undertaken under Chapter 7 of the UN Charter and are conducted when the belligerents do no consent to intervention. They are designed to maintain, restore or enforce the terms specified in the UN Mandate. Peace Keeping. PKO are undertaken under Chapter 7 of the UN Charter and are conducted with the consent of all major parties to a conflict.
It is conducted to keep peace between 2 contending parties. Wider Peacekeeping. Wider Peacekeeping is the aspect of PKO carried out with the consent of the belligerents. It is conducted in an environment that may be highly volatile. Peace Building. Peace building is the action taken to identify and support structures, which will tend to strengthen and solidify peace. It is conducted in order to avoid relapse into conflict. Conflict Prevention. Conflict prevention activities are normally conducted under Chapter VI of the UN charter.
They range from diplomatic initiatives to preventative deployments of forces intended to prevent disputes from escalating into armed conflicts or from spreading. Conflict prevention can also include fact-finding missions, consultation, warnings, inspections, and monitoring. Preventive deployment within the framework of conflict prevention is the deployment of operational forces possessing sufficient deterrence capabilities to avoid a conflict. Conflict in the international system is as old as humanity.
Coser (1965:3) sees conflict as a struggle over values and claims to scarce resources in which the aims of opponents are to neutralize, injure or eliminate their rivals. 3 The views of these scholars reveal that conflict, which is naturally inherent in human existence, can not be eradicated but curtailed or managed. Conflict has also been defined as the pursuit of incompatible interests and goals by different groups. 4 Armed conflict is the resort to the use of force and armed violence in the pursuit of incompatible and particular interests or goals.
The notion that conflicts abound in all societies (Ifeyinwa, 2001) is not an aberration when viewed within the prisms of international relations since the beginning of the Cold War till 1990s. However, conflict varies in spatial and temporal dimensions and if has succeeded in pitching countries against one another especially these with divergent socio-economic ideology. However, despite the view that conflict is destructive, some scholars are of the opinion that conflict could serve a positive purpose.
According to Faleti, Conflict is mostly depicted as if it is totally negative. He asserted that this is not always the case, depending on how it is handled. It can either be constructive (positive) or destructive (negative). 7 It is common to come across suggestions that conflicts can be used constructively to explore different solutions to a problem and stimulate creativity by recognizing and sensitively exposing conflicts as a way of bringing emotive and non-rational arguments into the open while deconstructing long-standing tension. In support of this argument, Adeyemo (1986:2) pointed out that social scientists such as Karl Marx, George Simmel and Lewis Caser viewed conflict as having positive social purposes. He supported this assertion by stating that conflict not only; integrates but also helps to establish group identity, clarify group boundaries and contribute to cohesion. 10 Oguntimehin (2005:12) concluded these view by stating that conflict expressed constructively leads to personal, social and political change. The benefits of which include, good governance, better social organization, better quality of life and better personal and social relationship. 11
According to the joint warfare publication 3-50, the international security environment changed as a result of the end of the cold war, the removal of regional super power interests and ideological pressures allowed new local and regional conflicts to emerge, Often characterized by the fragmentation of former sovereign states. 13 The nature of these conflicts are frequently based on latent disputes between intermingled ethnic groupings which have been rekindled by individual leaders to incite ethnic hatred as a means to gain power. These intra-state conflicts have been intensified by the availability of large quantities of modern weaponry. 4 Therefore, in intra-state conflicts; the grievances of the belligerent parties will generally be ethnic in origin and extremely complex. Ethnicity and fear may be used to mobilize support and as a rationalization for any subsequent ethnic and human right abuses. Akinwale A A and Atere A A opined that colonialism emerged as a result of international conflict which was negotiated in 1885 at the Berlin Conference and that it led to extension of interdependence between powerful and less powerful countries, a situation that fuelled international conflict through ethic nationalism.
They argued further that world wide interdependence among countries has either enhanced or hindered socio-economic and political development in a country depending on its ideological orientation in the post Second World War era. Since 1946, given the peculiar ideological orientation, all countries of the world are either pro-west or pro-east with diverse implications for local and international relations among different ethnic groups each of whom is conscious of its origin.
In realization of the foregoing, proliferation of diverse ethnicity in different countries of the world has given impetus to understanding the rationale behind the clamour for global peace and security, Therefore, ethnic nationalism and international conflict have been dialectics of irreconcilable opposite. Odewunmi(Ph D) and Olori Patrick identified economic as one of the frequent causes of conflicts. This normally takes the form of simple desires for treasure.
Using the 1991 Gulf War as a case study, Odewunmi and Olori were of the opinion that in a bid to solve the deteriorating domestic economic situation in Irag, the small and ill-defended neighbour, Kuwait offered an irresistible temptation to the aggressive government of Saddam Hussein. They further argued that it was the economic collapse that occurred during the democratic Weimer Republic in Germany that is alleged to have helped create the conditions in which Hitler was able to establish his pre-eminence during the early 1930s.
Odibendi (2003:8) however narrowed his focus to Africa by identifying some remote and immediate causes of conflicts in Africa. He asserted that the remote causes stem from the diversity and complexity of the composition of the nation states. 17 He further explained that while some sources are purely internal; others reflect the dynamics of a particular sub-region. He also considered international manipulations as a remote cause of conflict in Africa. Odibendi concluded by stating that political effects of colonialism and the creation of new African states were the major remote causes of conflict in Africa.
To appreciate the immediate causes, Odibendi posited that the nature of African conflicts can be best understood by taking a cursory look at the prevailing circumstances that produced such conflict situations. 18 In this regard, he pointed out these issues as immediate causes; colonial partition of African states, ethnic rivalry, struggle for political power, bad governance and other miscellaneous factors. Eluwa (2003:12) however, posited that the sources of African conflicts can be derived from the lack of an inequitable distribution of the basic needs of man.
The resulting state of disenchantment is then fertile ground for some of the influence that ultimately triggers conflicts. 19 Ali Mazrai, however, identified religion as another major factor. He exclaimed that while a common religion tends to bind people together, multiplicity of religion might tear them apart. He condemned the elites of most African states who project their interest through manipulating religions identities. The crisis in Sudan has been intensified and prolonged due to religious differences between the Muslim north and the minority Christian south.
The effects of conflicts on the African continent have been grave and devastating. Conflicts have resulted in death, genocide, refugee problems, destruction of infrastructure, loss of resources, anarchy and famine. Conflicts have great physical and psychological impact on the people of Africa. The effects of conflicts on Africa will be discussed under social, political and economic factors. Paul (1993:1) described the pathetic effects of conflict in Africa as a human and environmental disaster, area, moribund, marginalized, and peripheral to the rest of the world and indeed Africa is the third world’s third world. 3 Sule (2005:35) in his view stated that conflicts have led to the breakdown of educational institutions. He further reiterated that future leaders of war torn nations do not have opportunity to acquire the necessary education to take over government machinery in the future. 24 Sule stated that conflicts have killed millions of people, destroyed properties valued in billions of dollars and increased poverty. In Africa wars have wounded and maimed innocent civilians. In support of this view, Odibendi (2003:20) opined that in Africa’s conflict, the main aim is not just the destruction of the combatants but civilians and entire ethnic groups. 5 He stated that since 1980, an estimated 3 to 4 million people have died as a direct or indirect result of war. In June 1998, over 50 Ethiopian civilians were massacred when the Eritrea Air Force attacked undefended civilian locations, in Adigrat. He further stated that the unsuccessful Hutu uprising against the dominant Tutsi, in Burundi, had a mortality of about 150,000 to 250,000. Odibendi concluded by saying that religious strife between the Christians and Moslems, following the imposition of Sharia law in 1999, claimed an estimated 1000 lives in Kaduna. 6 These catastrophes, therefore underscore the need for a lasting solution to Africa’s conflicts. Another Social tragic hazard of conflict which affects people is injury. Injuries to civilians caused either directly or indirectly by combatants are of great concern. A 1987 estimate of injuries to civilians, caused by land mines in Angola ranged between 20,000 and 50,000. 27 Several thousand children and civilians were brutally mutilated with machete cuts during the eight year civil war in Sierra Leone. Oguntimehin (2005:28), in his view on the effect of conflict on social structure, highlighted the issue of child soldier.
He asserted that children have become one of the main targets of violence and in turn are being used to perpetuate it. 28 Militia groups have made a practice of forcefully recruiting children and initiating them through acts of violence against their communities. Such militia groups include Lord’s Resistance Army of Uganda (LRA), Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone (RUF) and National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). 29 Thus children, who would have lived, died because of conflicts. These who survived are traumatized or become accustomed to a culture of violence.
Some of them had to face the problem of malnutrition and lack of good health care services, peaceful environment and good security. Consequently some engage in all sorts of social vices to make a living. Some young girls turn to prostitution as a means of livelihood, thus exposing themselves to the dangers of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases. He identified another direct consequence as that of refugees and internally displaced perons. 30 Salim (1993:1) observed that Africa’s refugees are estimated at 5. million while internally displaced persons at over 10 million. 31 The war in Sudan has displaced up to 4 million people, with many spilling over to neighbouring countires. 32 The conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea has displaced hundreds of thousands both within and outside the 2 countries. The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) estimates that 320,000 have fled from Eritrea since the War. The wars in Somalia and Democratic republic of Congo have also caused a mass exodus of citizens to other neighbouring countries.
Conflict has continued to threaten political structures in many African states and has led to state collapse. President Obasanjo in his view, stated that conflicts and wars further destroy the fragile foundations for national cohesion, national unity and domestic political stability in Africa. He further said that the damage to Africa’s long-term political health is considerable. 33 Another resultant economic effect of conflicts in Africa is debt burden. Armed conflict contributes to unsustainable debts. According to Oguntimehin (2005: 29), DRC was estimated to owe 9 billion USD to Paris Club.
This debt aroused mainly from military expenditure at the detriment of social expenditure. Debt burden retards the development of such countries. Therefore, there can never be remarkable development in any country engaged in intra or inter-state armed conflict as revealed by Congo, Sudan & Somalia in contemporarily time. The reality that conflict is inevitable is widely admitted by many scholars. However, it is pertinent to note that there exist certain conflicts that cannot be resolved. The only remedy to such conflicts is to manage and regulate them.
This approach has led to the emergence of the term conflict management. According to Shedrack, conflict management is the process of reducing the negative and destructive capacity of conflicts through a number of measures and by working with and through the parties involved in the conflict. 38 he noted that the term is sometimes used synonymously with “conflict regulation”. He further stated that it covers the entire area of handling conflicts positively at different stages, including those efforts made to prevent conflict, by being proactive.
Shedrack concluded that conflict management encompasses conflict limitation, containment and litigation. In support of this view, Zartman (1995:229) notes that the reduction of conflict entails reducing incompatibilities as much as possible through the use of non-violent or political means. 39 Sokoya (2006:20) in an attempt to define conflict management stated that it is the whole range of techniques employed in any society to either prevent conflict or reduce the effect of destructive conflict behaviour. 40
Imobighe (2003:39) observed that conflict management is an integral management system consisting of 3 stages of response which include; conflict prevention (peace promotion and consideration), conflict control (abatement) and conflict resolution. 41 He stated that the conflict prevention stage involves the establishment of a behavioural code, confidence building measures, cooperative ventures or integrative measures. The conflict control stage has to do with appeals for restraint, evolution of principles or guidelines for settlement and separation of hostile forces using neutral or peacekeeping troops.
The last stage, conflict resolution involves conciliatory efforts, negotiations and mediation. It is in this regards that the efforts of the United Nation in managing conflicts in Africa with particular reference to the crisis in Darfur would be examined in this study. END NOTES 1. Etham BM, “Understanding Political Conflict- Causes Dynamics and Management”, August 26, 2004. 2. Kaoje UM. “ECOWAS and Conflict Resolution Mechanism, Lecture Delivered to Students of Senior Course 27 Armed Forces Command and Staff College, Jaji 15 March 2005 P1. 3. Coser L, The Function of Social Conflict, New York.
The free press 1965. P3. 4. David JF, Peace and Conflict Studies: An African overview of Basic concepts, University of Bradford. 5. Ibid. P. 28. 6. Shedrack GB Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa 7. Ibid. P 36. 8. Brown M (1996), The International Dimension of Internal Conflict. Cambridge Mass: MIT Press. 9. Shedrack GB Op. Cit. P 21. 10. Adeyemo FO, Third party Mediation in Arab-Israeli Conflict (Nigeria: 1986), P. 2. 11. Oguntimehin OA, Conflict Resolution in Africa; Challenges to African Union (College Paper AFCSC Jaji-Kaduna, 2005). 12. Coser L; The Functions of Social conflict.
New York: 13. Joint Warfare Publication 3-50 Peace Support Operations P, 2-2. 14. Ibid. 15. Yakubu AM, Mohammed RL, Ladan S and Adekeye EM, “The United Nations at 50: An Appraisal” Proceedings of a Seminar Organised by Kaduna Polytechnic held from 16 -18 Jan 1996. P 59. P. -Kaduna 2003) Pgld in Kaduna 16. Eluwa A “Conflict Resolution in Africa: The Role of the African union (College Paper AFCSC Jaji-Kaduna 2003) P 13. 17. Odibendi K, Conflict Resolution in Africa: Case study of the democratic Republic of Congo. (College Paper AFCSC Jaji-Kaduna 2003). P 8. 18. Ibid. 19. Eluwa Op. Cit. P, 12 20.
Staub E, ‘Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge 1992). 21. Anastase S, The Rwandan Conflcit, Origin development, Exit strategies. 22. Kofi Anan “Report on Africa, by Secretary General United Nations Internet. 23. Paul K quoted in Momali Sam, Global Disorder and ‘The New World Order, (Lagos: 1993). P1. 24. Sule OO, Conflcit Resolution in Africa: A Case study of Somalia (College Paper AFCSC Jaji-Nigeria 2005). P 35. 25. Odibendi K Op. Cit. P 20. 26. Ibid. 27. Africa Watch, Angola, “Violations of laws of war by both side: London (April 1989) P1. 8. Oguntemihin OA, Op Cit. P 29. 29. Ibid. 30. Ibid. 31. Salim AS, The OAU and Conflict Management in Africa, chairman’s report of Joint OAU/IPA Consultation Addis Ababa, 19-21 May 1993 (New York: International peace Academy, 1993) P1. 32. The Sudan Monitor, A Quarterly Newsletter of the Sudan Human Rights Association volume 4, No 3 September 1999. 33. Olusegun Obasanjo quoted in Zartman W and Deng F, Conflict Resolution in Africa( Virginia, USA: Donnely 1991)P Xviii. 34. Sule Op. cit. P 33. 35. W and Deng F. Op. cit P Xviii. 36. Odibendi K. Op. Cit. P25. 37. Amoaka KY.
Address of the UN Under-Secretary-General and Executive Secretary of Economic Commission for Africa, to the 70th Session of The Council of Minister of the Organization of Africa Unity, Algeria (1999). 38. Shedrack GB Op. Cit. P 95. 39. Zartman WI in Derg F and Zartman W (eds) Conflict Resolution in Africa. (Washington DC Brooking institute, 1995) P 229. 40. Sokoya JO, The United Nations and Nigeria in Search of Collective Peace and Security in Africa: A Case Study of Darfur Crisis, (College Paper Jaji-Kaduna 2006) P. 20 41. Imobighe TM, The AOU/AU and OAS in Regional Conflict Management: A Comparative Assignment (2003) P. 9. 42. Ehsan US, Current Affairs ( Lahore Pakistan 2003) P 115. 43. Ibid. P 116. 44. Id. 45. Ibid. CHAPTER THREE 3. 0THE DARFUR CONFLICT The preceding chapter gave the various scholars’ opinion on conflict, it’s causes and effects including the management techniques, this chapter would focus on the Darfur Conflict. It would start by conducting a critical analysis of the conflict in Darfur. The analysis would delve into the geographical setting of Darfur, historical background to the conflict, parties to the conflict and causes of the conflict. The conflict analysis method proposed by Simon Fisher would be adopted. 1.
GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING OF DARFUR Sudan is situated in Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea and it has a coastline of 853km along the Red Sea. With an area of 2,505,810 square kilometers, it is the largest country in the African continent and the tenth largest in the world1. It borders the countries of Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya and Uganda. It is dominated by the River Nile and its tributaries. (See the geographical map of Sudan at Appendix i). Darfur lies in western border of Sudan with Chad. The geographical map of Sudan depicting Darfur is at Appendix ii.
Sudan had a population of about 40,187,486 people as at 2005. 2 The population is growing at a rate of 2. 60 per cent (2005) annually. About 70 percent of the people Sudan are Muslims, 15 percent are Christians, and most of the remainder follows traditional religious. The people of northern Sudan are predominantly Sunni Muslims while most of the people in the south either practice traditional religions or are Christians. The official language of Sudan is Arabic; English is widely spoken, and African languages are used in the south. A program of Arabization is in place to encourage greater use of Arabic in the south. Racially, 55 percent of the population claims Arab descents while 45 percent are Africans. The 45 percent Africans constitute an ethnic mix with Dinka 13 percent, Naba 9 percent, Beja 7 percent and others 16 percent4. Dafur is mainly dominated by Dinkas. Thus, the Arab Muslims in the north and the African Christians are divided along religious, cultural and ethnic lines. These differences are potential flash points of conflict in Africa. Therefore, the geography and the type of population in Sudan set the stage for its conflict. 3. 2 BACKGROUND TO THE DARFUR CONFLICT
The Darfur conflict is an off-shoot of the civil war in Sudan. It is rooted in the structural inequality between the center of the country around the Nile and the peripheral areas such as Darfur. The tension in the last decade became tensed due to a combination of environmental calamity, political opportunism and regional politics. In 1983, the government of General Nimeiri introduced the sharia law in Khartoum and declared Sudan as an Islamic State. Furthermore, It attempted to impose Islam and Arabism on the South and abrogated the Addis Ababa Accord of 1972, which granted Southern Sudan regional autonomy.
Consequently, the South formed the southern Sudanese People Liberation movement (SPLM) as a reaction against the decisions of general Nimeiri. The SPLM went further to form its military wing, the Sudanese Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA). The discovery of oil in commercial quantity in 1978 help to further fuelled the crisis as the locals were excluded from the benefits derived from the oil. All these coupled with the failure of the political leadership in Sudan to ensure even development between the North and the South laid the foundation for the Darfur conflict.
The perceived political and economic marginalization of the South continued under president Bashir led central government, while the SPLM under Dr. John Garang controlled the south until his death in 2005. The black Africans in Sudan who were denied political and economic power challenged the Arab dominated government. The conflict between the two parties became extremely violent in February 2003 when the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and the Justice and Equity Movement (JEM) launched attacks against the Arab-dominated government for discriminating against Black Africans of Sudanese origin in the Darfur Region.
Their initial claim was that the region was being neglected by the central government at Khartoum. The rebel groups also claimed that the central government was oppressing black Africans in favour of the Arabs. The rebels blamed the Arab militia known as Janjaweed (Devils on horse back), which they strongly believed, were supported by the central government for committing crimes against humanity such as systematic killings, looting and rape. 3. 3PARTIES TO THE CONFLICT Parties refer to the individuals, groups and other bodies who played active roles in the conflict either directly or indirectly.
The level of participation by direct parties depends on the pursued interest, what is at stake and threats against their positions, value or interest. While the indirect parties assist their allies or companies to achieve desired aim. The most visible parties are known as the primary parties while those that are not commonly known (shadows) are the secondary parties. The parties to the crises in Darfur are: 1. The Sudanese government led by President Omar el Bashir based in the north. 2.
The Sudan People’s Liberation Army based in the south and led by John Garang who controlled the government in the south prior to the Nairobi peace agreement that subsequently made him Vice President of Sudan (He held this post until his death in August 2005). 3. The Janjaweed militia believed to be armed and financed by the government to fight in Dafur. 4. The Justice and Equity Movement fighting mainly in Darfur region. It was also alleged that some foreign countries provided indirect supports to the primary parities. John Garang, leader of the SPLA was believed to have built his army from a military base in Uganda in 1983.
The government of Uganda also granted the SPLA various levels of diplomatic and arms support under President Yoweri Museveni. The SPLA also received arms support from Ethiopia and Eritrea. Ethiopia and Eritrea accused Sudan of harbouring and supporting rebels in their respective countries; hence they decided to fight Sudan by proxy. It is pertinent to note that these countries are all members of the same sub regional body, Inter-government Authority for Development (IGAD). The US government under Bill Clinton gave 20 million US dollars worth in military aid to Eritrea, Ethiopia ad Uganda in 1996 to counter Sudan’s border incursions 5.
The US government also provided food aid directly under the guise of humanitarian aid to opposition groups in southern Sudan. Some scholars and military analysts saw these aids as indirect supports to SPLA. Consequently, the perceived indirect support to the SPLA by the US is viewed as a major hindrance against the timely resolution of the Sudanese conflict. On the other hand, the government of Sudan received financial and military aids from Egypt, Iraq and Libya. Additionally, Sudan which is viewed as an Islamic state, receives diplomatic support from the member countries of Arab Maghreb Union (AMU).
Therefore, an effective political pressure on the secondary parties to the conflict in Darfur to withdraw their support to the belligerent will pave way for quick management of the conflict. From the foregoing, the root causes of the conflict in Darfur Stem from racial, religions struggle for political power and resources. Others include ethnic differences external influence and selfish interest thus; the structural conflict theory and realist theories are suitable tools that vividly portray the picture of the conflict in Darfur. END NOTES 1. Microsoft Encarta premium 2006. 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid. 4.
Ibid. 5. Testimony of Jemera Rone to Human Rights Watch on Africa July 29, 1998. CHAPTER FOUR 4. 0 THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE DARFUR CONFLICT This chapter analysed the conflict in Darfur by identifying the root causes and the effect on Darfur. The chapter also appraises the roles of the United Nations both in conflict management and in the management of the Darfur conflict. Additionally, it identifies areas in which the UN, regional and sub-region conflict management mechanisms could complement one another in management of the conflict in Darfur. 4. 1 STATUTORY ROLE OF THE UN IN CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
The purpose and objectives for which the UN was founded are reflected in its articles and organizational structure. The Objectives can be divided into three categories, namely political and security objectives, economic and social objectives and the legal objectives1. The primary purpose of the UN as enshrined in its charter is the preservation of world peace. The Charter created 6 principal organs, which have their functions, focused towards the achievement of world peace. These organs are as follows: i) The General Assembly. ii) The Security Council. iii) The Economic and Social Council v) The Trusteeship Council v) The International court of Justice (vi)The secretariat and established in accordance with the charter. 3 The UN therefore has no higher goal, no deeper commitment, and no greater ambition than prevention and management of armed conflicts. 2 Under the UN Charter, member states agreed to settle inter and intra state disputes by peaceful means such as negotiations, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, and judicial settlement while refraining from the use of force. This is succinctly spelt out in chapter VI article 33 (specific settlement of disputes) of the UN Charter.
Unfortunately, there has been a general tendency by member states especially from Africa to settle their disputes through the use of force. This has always posed a great challenge to the efforts of the United Nations, which are geared toward fostering global peace. In order to meet up with these challenges, the UN is organized into The Security Council is charged with the management and resolution of conflicts worldwide. Although the United Nations was intended to deal with inter-state conflict, it is being required recently after the cold war era to settle complex emergencies or intra-state conflicts which are more pronounced in Africa.
The key elements of a United Nations crisis response group consist of elements from the following groupings: a. United Nation Secretariat. b. UN military assets from its own staff and assigned national contingents. c. Principal UN agencies such as the UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (HCFHR), UNICEF, World Health Organization (WHO) etc. d. UN civil police contributed by member states for that PSO. e. Bilateral national donors. f. Non-governmental organizations. g. International organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross/Crescent (ICRC)4.
Over the years, the UN through its various organs has played major roles in managing and resolving conflicts in Africa and other continents. Unfortunately, not every armed conflict in Africa has been attended to by the UN. The UN has always been accused of failing to respond swiftly and adequately to conflicts in Africa. This was evidenced by UN’s admission of its patent failures in Rwanda, where despite evidence of impending massacres, the UN failed to respond early enough. Similarly, in Burundi, the UN left the mediation of that conflict to neighbouring countires. 5 The crisis in Darfur is another example. . 2 THE UNITED NATIONS ROLE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DARFUR CONFLICT The United Nations is not yet fully involved in the management of conflict in Darfur. The reasons for the non-involvement of the UN in the conflict could be traced back to 1990. During the gulf war, the United States of America (USA) saw Sudan as an ally of Iraq and was accused of harbouring international terrorists. Accordingly the government of USA reacted by prohibiting the flow of investment to Sudan. The USA also used its position as a super power to influence anti-Sudan measures in the UN and other international fora.
Additionally, the financial and military support Sudan enjoyed form Iraq and Libya further solidified the accusations. Consequently, the USA supported the SPLA. In this regards, many military analysts and strategist were of the view that the non-intervention of the UN in the management of the conflict in Sudan was based on political actions of the USA against the Government of Sudan. Consequently, General Umar Hassan Ahmed al Bahir, the head of the Sudanese government once lamented that, “the Government of Sudan is battling not just the indigenous opposition but also imperial American power”. Air Vice Marshal AM Daggash, a one time Nigeria’s Chief of Defence Staff stated that “the United Nations is susceptible to manipulations by its more powerful members. In turn this saps confidence in the neutrality of the world body among the other members as it will appear to be an extension of the interest of its more prominent members”. 7 Thus, the credibility of the UN as viewed by the Sudanese Government is questionable. This has created access problems for the UN to effectively intervene in the conflict in Darfur.
It is therefore necessary for the UN to operate without overbearing influence from individual countries. 4. 2. 1 UN EFFORTS TOWARDS IMPLEMENTATION OF PEACE AGREEMEMNT IN DARFUR The parties to the conflict in Darfur failed to agree on the issues of resources sharing and power sharing. Consequently, there were rounds of talks under the mediation of IGAD from May 2003 to December 2004. These talks culminated in the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in Nairobi, Kenya on 9 January, 2005.
This agreement paved the way for the successful management of the protracted Sudanese civil war between the north and the south. It also gave a ray of hope to the peaceful settlement of the crisis in Darfur. As a follow up to this agreement, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1590 on 24 March 2005, authorizing a 10,000 person United Nations peacekeeping Mission (UNMIS) in Sudan. The role of UNMIS was to support the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed between the government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement /Army.
Though UNMIS was an important step toward managing the conflict in Darfur, the force lacked the mandate to effectively address the crisis directly. Hence without a peaceful resolution to this crisis, there is no hope that the north-south agreement could be effectively imprlemented. 8 4. 2. 2 EFFORTS TOWARD DEPLOYMENT OF UN PEACEKEEPERS IN DARFUR The African union has 7,000 troops deployed in Darfur. The force is grossly inadequate considering the size of the region. It has been observed by analysts that the mission lacks resources and much experience.
It has also been criticized for having a poor command structure and failing to be pro-active. 9 in an attempt to augment the efforts of the AU in managing the conflict in Darfur, the UN Security council passed resolution 1706 in August 2006 which called for the deployment of 17,000 strong military force and 3,000 police to replace the AU force. The Sudanese government which earlier insisted that it would not accept UN peacekeepers in Darfur however pointed out that it would not allow the UN a say in the military or political leadership of the African Union force in Darfur.
However, it could permit it to send troops to the crisis-ridden region to provide technical assistance. 10 the immediate past UN Security General Kofi Annan said after a meeting with the Sudanese government, AU and western officials” Khartoum had agreed in principle to a hybrid force”11 The hybrid force interpreted by military analyst as a joint AU-UN operation. The Sudanese government insisted that the mission in Darfur would continue to be led by the AU and suggested the mandate would not be altered. The government has not agreed on the extent the AU force should be expanded.
Mr Lam Akol, the foreign minister of Sudan said “Khartoum had agreed that the UN could send personnel to provide technical and administrative support to the AU”. He added that, “talks would be held between the government of Sudan, the AU and the UN to discuss the force size and what support was needed”. The foreign minister suggested that UN units could include engineers, de-miners and communications experts. A phased proposal put forward by the Security Council had been agreed upon, with the third phase being a joint AU/UN operation with command and control structures provided by the UN. . 2. 3 HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE Despite a cease-fire agreement and the presence of an African union peace keeping mission, widespread violence and a severe humanitarian crisis continue unabated in darfur. 12 Tens of thousands of people have been killed and more than two million residents have been driven out of their home. The United Nations commission of inquiry reported, “the international offences such as the crimes against humanity and war crimes that have been committed in Darfur may be no less serious and heinous than genocie. 3 Jan Egeland, the UN Under Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs, said that “the humanitarian situation in Darfur was already one of the world’s worst and called for improved access, respect for international humanitarian law, and donor support for the greater Darfur initiative, a US$22 million humanitarian appeal. The Secretary General special envoy for Humanitarian Affairs for Sudan, Tom Eric vraalsen visited all 3 Darfur states to foster humanitarian ceasefire. He identified denials of access on security grounds and government restrictions as the main impediments.
The UN urged the parties to the conflict to renew cease-fire to encourage humanitarian activities. The UN deployed its agencies to Darfur to conduct humanitarian activities in different parts of the states. According to Manuel Aranda da Silva, the Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary General and Humanitarian Coordinator, the UN had an ambitions work plan for the year 2006 a budget of $1. 7 billion for recovery and development activities. $1. 5 billion of the total amount was for humanitarian operations. 4 Other UN agency representatives were deployed to Kassala state in the east of Sudan for humanitarian aid to the Sudanese. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) representative Kalunga Lutato told UN daily news reporters that the UN has seven refugee camps in Kassala state. In an interview with the researcher, Maj Adulkareem who participated in peacekeeping operation under the AU confirmed the presence of UN humanitarian agencies in Darfur. The UN World Food Programme WFP was also deployed to Kassala where it conducts monitoring and distribution.
The UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) demobilized children from Sudan people’s liberation army (SPLA) in the south of the country. In June 2006, the UNICEF Representative in Sudan ,Ted Chaiban reported the demobilization of 181 children from the SPLA. Additionally, 174 boys and seven girls were formally released through the southern Sudan Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Commission. Though the humanitarian activities in Darfur have not significantly helped to effectively manage the conflict in Darfur, this effort by the UN has alleviated the sufferings of the people of Darfur and Sudan in general. 4. 2 . 4 DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS
In mid January 2004, Vraalsen visited Chad, to renew efforts to obtain a ceasefire under international supervision and then to help support humanitarian aid to the refugees. During his February 2004 visit to Khartoum, he persistently urged a humanitarian ceasefire and pressed the government to make good on a recent statement by President Ahmed al- Bashir promising unimpeded access. The presidential pledge assisted the UN and the humanitarian community to improve their operational presence in Darfur and pushed for yet more access and better protection for civilians and the humanitarian workers trying to assist them.
Thus, a humanitarian ceasefire became UN diplomacy’s priority. The idea of having a hybrid force was mooted through diplomacy. After the government of Sudan respectably rejected the transition of AU mission to UN mission, diplomats sought a compromise and the notion of a “hybrid” force was put forward. The Security Council compromise appeared to be a significant retreat, however, diplomats insisted the goals was the creation of an effective force that would play a vital role in the management of the conflict in Darfur. Therefore, diplomatic efforts by the UN have played an important role in managing the conflict in Darfur. . 3 FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST UNITED NATIONS ROLE IN DARFUR The government of the United States of America perceives Sudan as a terrorist state. The USA anti-Sudan policy has been a major obstacle in the timely management of the conflict in Darfur by the UN. This was confirmed by the former US President, Jimmy Carter when he said “If the United Stated would be reasonably objective in Sudan, I think we at the Carter Center and the Africans who live in that area could bring peace to Sudan. But the United States has a policy of trying to overthrow the government of Sudan.
So whenever there is a peace initiative, unfortunately our government puts up whatever obstacle it can16. Furthermore, on 29 October 2003, President Bush extended the economic embargo against Sudan, in effect since November 1977, for a year. The US President stated that “the actions and policies of the government of Sudan continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States”. Consequently, Sudan remains on the list of states the USA considers as sponsors of international terrorism.
The one time Secretary of State Colin Powell once said “an agreement ending the war in the south is the key to removing Sudan from the list. 17 Parties to the conflict in Darfur were amazed with the comments of President Bush’s special representative for Sudan, former senator Danforth, that “a peace agreement between the government and the SPLA would not solve the problems in Darfur”. Such conflicting messages from Washington confused the parties and undercut its leverage. Hence, Sudan which believes US has an overbearing influence on the United Nations has doubts on the UN’s neutrality.
Consequently, the government of Sudan prefers the African Union to mediate in the conflict in Darfur. This account for the access problem the United Nations has persistently experienced in Darfur. 4. 4 STRATEGIES FOR CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN DARFUR Generally, the resolution of any conflict in today’s changing world is a complex endeavour. It is thus pertinent that critical assessment be carried out. Therefore, having assessed the role of the UN in managing the conflict in Darfur and its mitigating factors, it is necessary to present possible ways of managing the conflict in Darfur.
Some of these measures include change of anti-Sudan policy by the US, complementary efforts between the UN, regional and sub-regional organization, prevention of inflow of illicit arms to Sudan, rapid response to conflicts and political mediation. 4. 4. 1 Improving USA and Sudan Relationship. The African Union and IGAD could diplomatically intervene by reconciling the US and the government of Sudan in the interest of peace. The AU and IGAD could achieve this by seeking the support of the international community through the UN to persuade the USA to change its anti-Sudan policy.
Sudan on the other hand should be persuaded to desist from harbouring international terrorist. This reconciliation would alleviate anti-USA sentiments in Sudan thereby improving the access problem the UN is currently facing in Darfur. It would also motivate the USA to support the conflict management bodies in Darfur. 4. 4. 2 Cooperation between UN, Regional and Sub-Regional Organisations. Military analysts, scholars and experts on conflict management had argued that the UN, regional and sub regional bodies could complement one another in the prevention, management and the resolution of conflicts.
A Zimbabwean diplomat and an expert on conflict management stated that “conflict management and partnership between the UN and the AU, together with its corresponding sub regional organizations should be akin to a pyramid. At the top of the pyramid should be the UN as the world body, and as a supreme organ for ensuring peace and security worldwide. At the bottom of the pyramid should be the sub regional organizations, and, between the apex and the base, the AU should provide the critical linkage. 8 In the case of the crisis in Darfur, the UN, AU and IGAD could possibly work together as a team. IGAD has successfully mediated in the conflict which resulted in the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) but can not implement it alonesigning of the cto support the conflict management bodies . The AU which has access to conduct peace keeping operations in Sudan has logistics and command and control problems. The UN on other hand has the capacity to implement the CPA and could mobilize resources and logistic requirements for peacekeeping operations but has access problems.
To effectively manage the crises in Darfur, there has to be coordinated and complementary efforts between the UN, AU and IGAD. Therefore the UN could use its influence in the international community to implement the CPA and provide technical assistance, logistics, and command and control structures. 4. 4. 3 Prevention of Inflow of Arms into Sudan. The UN, AU and IGAD could together control the flow of illicit arms into Sudan. It is on record that some international arms merchants in collaboration with some IGAD member states supplied the arms used by the belligerents in the Sudanese war.
The Sudanese government has accused Uganda and Ethiopia severally of allowing illicit arms through their borders to the southern sudan. 19 These accusations could be verified by IGAD and the countries involved could be checked or severely reprimand. The UN could augment the efforts of IGAD in stopping the flow of illicit arms to Sudan by compelling, tracking and publicising details of arms manufacturers and international merchants who gain from the war in Sudan. 4. 4. 4 Political Mediation. The willingness of the UN to mediate in conflict depends to a large extent on the attitude of the parties to the conflict.
The parties to any conflict are required to consent to UN in writing through the office of the UN Secretary-General. The UN’s slow response to the crisis in Darfur is attributable to unwillingness of the Government of Sudan to write to UN for intervention. Hence, the AU, which is accepted by the government of Sudan, could mediate politically with Sudan to respond to the demands of the UN in the interest of peace. AU could achieve this by impressing on the parties to the conflict to give consent to the UN in writing to pave way for political mediation.
Therefore, political mediation between the UN, AU, and the government of Sudan and other parties to the conflict is a credible conflict management tool that could enhance peace initiatives in Sudan. END NOTES 1. Joint Warfare Publication 3-50, Peace Support Operations. P 1-5. 2. Magaji M, Conflict Resolution in Africa: Diplomatic options( College Paper AFCSC Jaji-Kaduna 2003). P 24. 3. Ehsan US, Current Affairs, (Pakistan 2003) . P 119. 4. Joint warfare publication OP. Cit. P 1-7. 5. Oguntimehin OA, Conflict Resolution in Africa: Challenges to African Union. (College Paper AFCSC Paper Jaji-Kaduna 2005).
P 50. 6. Dan C, Today’s Costliest War-Sudan. Progressive Magazine (June 2000). 7. Daggash AM quoted in Yakubu AM, Mohammed RL, Ladan S and Adekeye EM (edt) “The United Nations At 50 an Appraisal, Preedings of a seminar Organised by Kaduna Polytechnic held from 16th-18th January 1996, At Arewa house kaduna. Pg 31. 8. Internet – www. womenwagingpeace. net. 9. Andrew E and Mavic Turner “Khartoun Curbs UN Role in Darfur Force (Nairobi 2006) 10. Ibid. 11. Id. 12. Internet , www. womenwagingpeace. net. 13. UN Commission finds Sudanese Government Responsible for Crimes in Darfur; UN news Center (2005). 4. Internet. UN News Center www. un. org/news. 15. Habu SG in Shedrack GB, Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. P 316. 16. Don Melvin, Care seeks Political fix to Sudan (1999). 17. Darfur Rising;Sudan’s New Crisis KG Africa Report N076 2004. P 27. 18. William N, Management and Peace Operations: The Role of the OAU and Sub Regional Organisations. 19. Oyibo NO, “United Nations and Sub-Regional Bodies in Conflict Resolution in Africa: A Case Study of Sudan”, (College paper of AFCSC Jaji-Kaduna 2003). P39. CHAPTER FIVE 5. 0CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. 1CONCLUSION
This research project commenced with the statement of research problems and objectives. The work also clarified some terms related to conflict management in order to facilitate the understanding of the study. The research discussed the views of scholars and opinion leaders on the concept of conflict and its management. One of the scholars viewed conflict as the pursuit of incompatible interests and goals by different groups. Based on this definition, armed conflict is considered to be the resort to the use of force and armed violence in pursuit of incompatible and particular interests or goals.
The study also highlighted that the nature of conflicts in Africa in the post cold war were intra-state which have been intensified by the availability of large quantities of modern weapons. The causes of conflicts in Africa were related to historical, eternal; external, political and social factors. Other factors include economical, ethnic and religious. These conflicts have resulted in social, political and economic problems such death, genocide, refugees, collapse of the state and political instability. Other effects include destruction of infrastructure debt burden and poor economy.
The concept of conflict management was discussed based on the view of many authors. One of the authors viewed conflict management as a process of reducing the negative and destructive capacity of conflicts through a number of measures and working with and through the parties involved in the conflict. The research work assessed the United Nations as a conflict management mechanism. A brief historical background of the United Nations was discussed. The variables of the research were analysed using the structural conflict theory and realist theories.
Thus these theories served as a theoretical framework of the study. While the structural conflict theory laid emphasis on abstract institutions such as state, politics as well as demography, realism has its starting point from individuals. A critical analysis of the conflict in Sudan revealed that the geography and type of population in Sudan set the stage for its conflicts. The research found that the crisis in Darfur was an off-shoot of the civil war that has persisted in Sudan for decades. The post cold war conflict in Sudan began in 1991.
The black Africans who were denied political and economic power challenged the Arab dominated government. The various parties to the conflict emerged along racial, religious, and demographic lines. The parties to the conflict include the Sudanese government led by president Bashir, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army led by late Col John Garang and the Janjaweed militia believed to be armed and financed by the government. Other, factions include the Justice and Equity Movement based mainly in Darfur.
The root causes of the conflict in Darfur emerged from racial, religious and political struggle for power and resource. The crisis led to the death of thousands of people, displacement of millions and untold human hardship to the people of Sudan. The conflict in Darfur attracted the attention of the international community when genocide tendencies were perceived. However due to access problem, the UN is not adequately involved in managing the conflict in Darfur. Nevertheless, the UN made significant efforts to implement the Comprehensive Peace Agreement among parties mediated by IGAD.
The UN also hopes to deploy peacekeepers and provide technical and administrative support. It is also actively involved in humanitarian activities and diplomatic effort to manage the conflict. The access problem which has mitigated the role of the UN in Darfur evolved from the poor relationship between the government of Sudan and the United States of America. Additionally, rampant violations of cease-fire by belligerent have also hindered UN’s humanitarian activities. This research study proposed some strategies for conflict management in Darfur.
These strategies include improving the relationship between USA and Sudan, coordinated cooperation between the UN, AU and IGAD in managing the conflict in Darfur and prevention of the inflow of arms from neighbouring countries into Sudan. Other strategies include enhancing rapid response to crisis in Africa and political mediation between UN, the government of Sudan and parties to the conflict. 2. RECOMMENDATIONS This study recommends that: a. The African Union and IGAD should make diplomatic efforts to improve the relationship between the USA and Sudan. b.
The United Nations should be more assertive in playing its statutory roles in Darfur. c. The United Nations should intensify its diplomatic efforts towards the deployment of peacekeepers in Darfur. d. The Untied Nations, African Union and IGAD should complement each other in their peculiar areas of weaknesses. e. The UN should use its financial advantage over AU to provide logistics support to the peacekeepers in Darfur. f. The AU should put political pressure on the government of Sudan to officially grant consent for the deployment of UN peacekeepers to Darfur. . The UN should use its influence to stop the flow of illicit arms from other countries to Sudan. 5. 3 BIBLIOGRAPHY 5. 3. 1 BOOKS 1. Adeyemo FO, Third party Mediation in Arab – Israeli conflict, (Nigeria 1986). 2. Anastase S, The Rwandan Conflict, Origin, Development Strategies. 3. Brown M, The International Dimension of International Conflict, (Cambridge Mass: MT Press). 4. Cohen PS, Modern Social Theory (London Heinemann 1968). 5. Coser L, The Function of Social Conflict, (New York the Free Press 1965). 6. Dan Melvin, Care Seeks Political Fix to Sudan (1999) . David JF, Peace and Conflict Studies: An African Overview of Basic Concepts. (University of Bradford). 8. Derg F and Zartman, Conflict Resolution in African (Washington DC Bookings Institute 1995). 9. Ehsan Ullah Saqib, Current Affairs (Lahore Pakistan 2003) 10. Guide to Research Methodology (Apr 2006) 11. Johnson ED, The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars (Bloomington, Indian university Press 2003). 12. Nomali Sam, Global Disorders and the New World Order (Lagos 1993). 13. Peace Support Operation:Joint Warfare Publication 3-50. 14.
Shedrack GB, Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. 15. Staub E, Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence, (Cambridge University Press 1992). 16. Woodhouse T and Rambo Tham , Peace Keeping and Conflict Resolution. (Frank Cass London. Portland 2000) 5. 3. 2 DOCUMENTS 1. Amoaku KY, Address of the UN under Secretary-General and Executive Secretary of Economic Commission for Africa, to the 70th session of the council of ministers of the organsation of African Unity, (Algeria 1999) 2. Darfur Peace Agreement. 3.
Kofi Annan, Report on Africa by Secretary General United Nations. 4. Salim AS, The OAU and Conflict Management in Africa, Chairman’s Report of Joint OAU/IPA Consultation Addis Ababa 19-21 May 1993 (New York: International Peace Academy 1993). 5. 3. 3 RESEARCH PAPERS 1. Eluwa A, Conflict Resolution in Africa, the Role of the African Union (College Paper, AFCSC Jaji-Kaduna 2003). 2. Gidado AM, AMIS and the Darfur Crisis (Commandant’s Paper, ICCS Jaji-Kaduna 2005). 3. Labaran OB, United Nations and Peace Keeping Operations in Africa – Sierra Leone in perspective (college paper, AFCSC Jaji-Kaduna 2004). . Magaji M, Conflict Resolution in Africa: Diplomatic Options (College Paper, AFCSC Jaji-Kaduna 2003). 5. Odibendi K, Conflict Resolution in Africa: Case Study of the Democratic Republic of Congo( College Paper, AFCSC Jaji-Kaduna 2003). 6. Oguntimehin OA, Conflict Resolution in Africa: Challenges to African Union. ( College Pap